Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as generally common, although scarce in the south of its range (Gibbs et al. 2001).

Population Trend
Stable
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Wikipedia

Bar-shouldered dove

The bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) is native to Australia. It is protected under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974. It is a medium sized pigeon varying in size from 26 to 30 centimetres (10.4 to 12 inches). Its voice is a distinctive and melodious "cook-a-wook" or "coolicoo".

Description[edit]

The dove has a blue-grey breast with chequered brown-bronze wings. The nape is similar to that of the peaceful dove in that the nape feathers are striated but differs in that the bar-shouldered dove does not have striated throat feathers like the peaceful dove. Furthermore, the nape feathers are copper in colour. These doves are also often confused with the introduced and common spotted turtle dove. The eye ring tends to be grey but red-brown when breeding. The juveniles are duller in colour.

Doves are often found in pairs, groups or large loose flocks and are seen commonly feeding on the ground feeding on seeds. Flight is direct and swift and wings whistle while the birds are in flight.

Habitat[edit]

Bar-shouldered doves are usually found in thick vegetation where water is present, damp gullies, forests and gorges, mangroves, plantations, swamps, eucalyptus woodlands, tropical and sub-tropical scrubs and river margins. They can be found both at inland and coastal regions. The bar-shouldered dove is found over the east coast from Southern New South Wales (with increasing numbers in the Blue Mountains and Illawarra regions), north to Cape York Peninsula and west to the Pilbara region (about Onslow, Western Australia. They have been seen increasingly in southern Australia, specifically in north-western Victoria but may have been displaced in other natural locations by introduced species. The doves have also been spotted in the Torres Strait. It is also found in other countries of the South Pacific region, such as Papua New Guinea.

Breeding[edit]

Breeding season is from September to January in the south and February to April in the north. Its nest is a flat twig and grass platform usually in trees and shrubs, mangrove or scrub. The dove will lay two, white, glossy and rounded eggs.

Parasites[edit]

A bar-shouldered dove has been found to be infected by Toxoplasma gondii, the agent of toxoplasmosis, in a French zoo.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Geopelia humeralis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Rigoulet, Jacques; Hennache, Alain; Lagourette, Pierre; George, Catherine; Longeart, Loïc; Le Net, Jean-Loïc; Dubey, Jitender P. (2014). "Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the Zoo of Clères, France". Parasite 21: 62. doi:10.1051/parasite/2014062. ISSN 1776-1042. PMID 25407506.  open access publication - free to read
  • Pizzey and Knight, "Field Guide to the Birds of Australia", Angus & Robertson, ISBN 0-207-19691-5
  • Trounsen and Trounsen, "Australian Birds: A Concise Photographic Field Guide, Cameron House. ISBN 1-875999-47-7.
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