The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2011. AOU Check-List (08-2011)
  • 2011. Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource, 2011.04.02
  • 2011. IOC World Bird List, Master List v2.9
  • Adriaens, P. (2015). Sterna sandvicensis. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • American Ornithologists' Union. 2006. Forty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk, vol. 123, no. 3
  • American Ornithologists' Union. 2006. Forty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk, vol. 123, no. 3. 926-936
  • American Ornithologists's Union. 1998. Check-List of North American Birds (The Species of Birds of North America from the Arctic through Panama, Including the West Indies and Hawaiian Islands). 7th.ed.. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A..
  • Anonyme (à paraître). Cahiers d'habitats Natura 2000. Cahiers Oiseaux - Bibliographie générale, 4 pages - (version provisoire de 2008), Ministère en charge de l'écologie - MNHN.
  • Anonyme (à paraître). Cahiers d'habitats Natura 2000. Connaissance et gestion des habitats et des espèces d'intérêt communautaire. Cahiers Oiseaux (version provisoire de 2008), Ministère en charge de l'écologie - MNHN.
  • Araya BM & G Millie. 1991. Guía de campo de las aves de Chile. 4ta ed. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago. 405 p.
  • B., Bruun., & S. Baha El Din.   (1985).  Common Birds of Egypt, The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo..  
  • BirdLife International 2012. Thalasseus sandvicensis
  • Birdlife International, 2009. "Sterna sandvicensis" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed January 14, 2010 at
  • Buckley, P., F. Buckley. 1972. Individual Egg and Chick Recognition By Adult Royal Terns (Sterna maxima maxima). Animal Behaviour, 20: 457-462.
  • Delgado, R.; R.G. Campos; J. Sánchez y Ch. Gómez. 1998. Lista de Aves de Costa Rica/ Checklist of Costa Rican Birds. ASOCIACION ORNITOLOGICA DE COSTA RICA. San José. Costa Rica. 28 p..
  • Dickinson, Edward C., ed. 2003. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World, 3rd edition
  • Dickinson, Edward C., ed. 2003. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World, 3rd edition. 1039
  • Dunn, E. 1972. Effect of Age on the Fishing Ability of Sandwich Terns Sterna sandvicensis. Ibis, Vol. 114, Issue 3: 360-366.
  • Efe, M., E. Tavares, A. Baker, S. Bonatto. 2009. Multigene phylogeny and DNA barcoding indicate that the Sandwich tern complex (Thalasseus sandvicensis, Laridae, Sternini) comprises two species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Vol. 52, Issue 1: 263-267.
  • Elizondo, L.H. 1992. Especies de Aves Migratorias Neárticas en Costa Rica. Base de Datos de Biodiversidad, Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio). Santo Domingo, Heredia. Costa Rica. 6 p. (mimeografiado).
  • Fasola, M., L. Canova. 1992. Nest Habitat Selection by Eight Syntopic Species of Mediterranean Gulls and Terns. Colonial Waterbirds, Vol. 15, No. 2: 169-178.
  • Fuchs, E. 1977. Predation and Anti-Predator Behaviour in a Mixed Colony of Terns Sterna sp. and Black-headed Gulls Larus ridibundus with Special Reference to the Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis. Ornis Scandinavica, Vol. 8, No. 1: 17-32.
  • Gochfeld, M., J. Burger. 1996. Family Sternidae (Terns). Pp. 647 in J del Hoyo, A Elliott, J Sargatal, eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 3. Hoatzins to Auks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
  • Hutchison, R., J. Stevenson, W. Thorpe. 1968. The Basis for Individual Recognition by Voice in the Sandwich Tern (Sterna sandvicensis). Behaviour, Vol. 32, No. 1: 150-157.
  • John Terres (1980) The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Knopf: New York.
  • Lewis, T.J. & F.G. Stiles.1980. Locational checklist of the birds of Costa Rica. Costa Rica Expeditions. San José, Costa Rica.
  • Moller (2006) Sociality, age at first reproduction and senescence: comparative analyses of birds. J Evol Biol, 19:682-689.
  • Monaghan and Metcalfe (2000) Genome size and longevity. Trends Genet, 16:331-332.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Shealer, D. 1998. Differences in Diet and Chick Provisioning between Adult Roseate and Sandwich Terns in Puerto Rico. The Condor, Vol. 100, No. 1: 131-140.
  • Sibley, Ch. and B. Monroe, Jr.. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press. New Haven & London. 1111 p.
  • Slud, P. 1964. The birds of Costa Rica: Distribution and Ecology. Bulletin of The American Museum of Natural History 128: 5-430
  • Stienen, E., A. Brenninkmeijer, C. Geschiere. 2001. Living with Gulls: The Consequences for Sandwich Terns of Breeding in Association with Black-headed Gulls. The International Journal of Waterbird Biology, Vol. 24, No. 1: 68-82.
  • Stienen, E., A. Brenninkmeijer. 2002. Foraging Decisions of Sandwich Terns in the Presence of Kleptoparasitising Gulls. The Auk, Vol. 119, No. 2: 473-486.
  • Stienen, E.W.M.; Brenninkmeijer, A. (2006). Effect of brood size and hatching sequence on prefledging mortality of Sandwich terns: why lay two eggs?. J. Ornithol. 147(4): 520-530
  • Stiles, F.G. & A. F.Skutch. 1995. Guía de Aves de Costa Rica.Traducción al Español: Loretta Rosselli. Ilustrado por Dana Gardner. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio). Heredia, Costa Rica. 580 p.
  • Stiles, F.G. 1983. Checklist of birds. Pp. 530-544, In: D.H. Janzen (ed.). Costa Rican Natural History. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Stiles, F.G. 1984. Status and Conservation of Seabirds in Costa Rica waters. ICBP Technical Publication No2.
  • Stiles,F.G. y S. Smith. 1977. New Information on Costa Rican Waterbirds. The Condor 79: 91-97.
  • The Birds of North America Online (Online source) External link.
  • Urban, E.K., C.H. Fry & S. Keith (1986). The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.
  • Visser, J., G. Peterson. 1994. Breeding Popluations and Colony Site Dynamics of Seabirds Nesting in Louisiana. Colonial Waterbirds, Vol. 17, No. 2: 146-152.
  • Voelker, G. 1996. An Hypothesis for Seasonal Color Change in the Genus Sterna. Journal of Avian Biology, Vol. 27, No. 3: 257-259.


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