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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species ranges in tropical and subtropical areas of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean. In the western Indian Ocean it breeds on the Aldabra and Amirante Islands, Seychelles, Chagos Islands (British Indian Ocean Territory) and the Maldives and can be found on the eastern African coast. Its range in the eastern Indian Ocean and Pacific ecompasses the Andaman Islands, India, east to southern Japan and China, south through Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippenes and New Guinea to north-east Australia and some islands in the western-central Pacific (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

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Source: IUCN

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Length: 34-37 cm. Plumage: above very pale grey; below white; tail grey with white outer tail feathers; head white with black from nape around sides of head through eyes; outer primary black. Immature brownish with darker grey mottling on back, black patch on hindneck. Bare parts: iris brown; bill black with yellow tip; feet and legs black with pink soles. Habitat: seacoasts, islands and offshore. Breeds in Indian ocean from Amirantes and Aldabra to Chagos Islands, non-breeding visitor to Mozambique and northern natal. <389><391><393>
  • Urban, E.K., C.H. Fry & S. Keith (1986). The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species frequents small offshore islands, reeds, sand spits and rocky cays, feeding in atoll lagoons and close inshore over breakers, but sometimes also at sea. It feeds mainly on small fish and will almost always forage singly by shallow plunge-diving or surface-diving. Its breeding season varies depending on locality, usually forming small colonies of 5 to 20 pairs, but sometimes up to 200 pairs. Colonies are often monospecific and formed on unlined depression in the sand or in gravel pockets on coral banks close to the high tide line (del Hoyo et al. 1996).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
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Source: IUCN

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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 25.938 - 26.284
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.068 - 0.292
  Salinity (PPS): 34.969 - 35.193
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.764 - 4.813
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.166 - 0.199
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.975 - 3.239

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 25.938 - 26.284

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.068 - 0.292

Salinity (PPS): 34.969 - 35.193

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.764 - 4.813

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.166 - 0.199

Silicate (umol/l): 2.975 - 3.239
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sterna sumatrana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, though national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in China; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Wikipedia

Black-naped tern

The black-naped tern (Sterna sumatrana) is an oceanic tern mostly found in tropical and subtropical areas of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is rarely found inland.

The tern is about 30 cm long with a wing length of 21–23 cm. Their beaks and legs are black, but the tips of their bills are yellow. They have long forked tails.

The black-naped tern has a white face and breast with a grayish-white back and wings. The first couple of their primary feathers are gray.

There are two listed subspecies:

Lady Elliot Island, Qld, Australia


References[edit]

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