Overview

Distribution

Sub-Saharan Africa except NE Somalia, and W Angola, Namibia, NW South Africa

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Behaviour This species is predominantly sedentary, although it may make local nomadic movements in response to rainfall during periods of drought (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Hockey et al. 2005). It forages diurnally in pairs or small groups of between 5 and 30individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1992) (occasionally in groups of 50-200) (Hancock et al. 1992, del Hoyo et al. 1992), and roosts nightly in groups of up to 100 (Hancock et al. 1992, del Hoyo et al. 1992). It often uses the same roost site year-round, year after year, although it will wander several kilometres away to forage during the day (Hancock et al. 1992, del Hoyo et al. 1992). The species breeds in solitary pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1992), with breeding reaching a peak during or just after the rainy season (although in Gambia and Tanzania breeding is restricted to the dry season) (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Habitat This species inhabits wooded streams and river courses in open moist grassland and savanna woodland (Brown et al. 1982, del Hoyo et al. 1992), and is attracted to man-made irrigated habitats (Hancock et al. 1992), such as cultivated land, large gardens and playing fields (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Hockey et al. 2005). It less often occurs in marshes, flooded grassland, the edges of lakes and reservoirs, mangrove swamps, coastal beaches (Brown et al. 1982, del Hoyo et al. 1992), open woodland and at forest edges (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Diet This species is carnivorous, its diet consisting largely of insects (especially weevils, Diptera, the pupae of Lepidoptera and the larvae of Coleoptera), as well as crustaceans, millipedes, centipedes, spiders, earthworms, snails and small reptiles (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Breeding site The nest is a basket-shaped platform of sticks and twigs situated 1-12 m (usually 3-6 m) above the ground or above water on a horizontal tree branch, in bushes or on man-made structures such as telegraph poles (Brown et al. 1982, del Hoyo et al. 1992), dam walls or pergolas (Hockey et al. 2005). The same nest site is usually used year after year (but not necessarily by the same breeding pair) (Brown et al. 1982).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Savannas especially near water

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Dispersal

Movements and dispersal

Resident

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 16 years (captivity) Observations: One specimen lived for 16 years in captivity (Brouwer et al. 1994).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bostrychia hagedash

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population Trend
Increasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The species is threatened by extended droughts (which reduce food availability by causing damp soil to harden, making it more difficult to probe for insects) (Hancock et al. 1992). The population in South Africa declined markedly at the turn of the century due to hunting during colonial expansion (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Utilisation The species is hunted and traded at traditional medicine markets in Nigeria (Nikolaus 2001).
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Wikipedia

Hadada ibis

The hadada or hadeda ibis (Bostrychia hagedash), is an ibis found in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Description[edit]

Appearance[edit]

Hadeda ibis foraging on a lawn. Note the nictitating membranes that it closes as it swallows a large insect or snail.

The hadeda is a large (about 76 cm long), grey-to-partly brown species of ibis. It has a narrow, white, roughly horizontal stripe across its cheeks. This is sometimes called the "moustache" though it does not reach the mouth corners. The plumage over the wings has an iridescent purple sheen. The bird has blackish legs and a large grey-to-black bill with a red stripe on the upper mandible. The upper surfaces of the toes are of a similar red. The wings are powerful and broad, enabling quick take-offs and easy manoeuvring through dense tree cover.

Call[edit]

It has a loud and distinctive "haa-haa-haa-de-dah" call that is often heard when the birds are flying or are startled, hence the name. While roosting they produce a single loud "haaaa". When foraging, their contact call is a low growl similar to that made by a young puppy.


Habitat and distribution[edit]

The hadeda ibis is found throughout Sub-Saharan Africa in open grasslands, savanna and wetlands, as well as urban parks, school fields, green corridors and large gardens. This bird occurs in Sudan, Burundi Ethiopia, Senegal, Uganda, Tanzania, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cameroon, Gambia, Kenya, Somalia and South Africa.

Diet[edit]

Flying in South Africa

It feeds mainly on earthworms, using its long scimitar-like bill to probe soft soil. It also eats larger insects, such as the Parktown prawn, as well as spiders and small lizards. These birds also favour snails and will feed in garden beds around residential homes. They are particularly welcomed on bowling and golf greens because they are assiduous in extracting larvae of moths and beetles that feed on the roots of the grass. It is not clear how they detect these, but it seems likely that they can hear their chewing and digging.

Conservation status[edit]

Widespread and common throughout its large range, the hadeda ibis is evaluated as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

References[edit]

In a suburban garden in Johannesburg, South Africa.
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