Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Abbott's booby pairs stay together through successive seasons and nest colonially between April and October (5). A single egg is laid into a nest constructed from leafy twigs and both parents take it in turns to incubate the egg during the 56 day period; much longer than for other members of this family (6). Breeding occurs from about eight years of age and life expectancy may be up to 40 years (4). Breeding success averages around 30 percent and one pair will rear roughly two offspring every 9.5 years (5). These seabirds feed on fish and squid (4), presumably by plunge diving (5). Adults return to feed their young in the late afternoon and early evening (5), and it is likely that Abbott's boobies rely on cold upwellings near to Christmas Island where there is a seasonal abundance of food (6).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Abbott's booby is a large slender-bodied, black-and-white seabird. The head, neck and underparts are white whilst the black upperwing has white flecking and a narrow white leading edge (4). The white lower back and rump are blotched with black and the pointed tail is also black (5). In juveniles the wing and tail are brown in colour (2). In males the bill is a vivid blue-grey, tipped with black (5), whereas in the female it is pink and also tipped with black (5). Both sexes have deep grey legs and feet (4).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

Papasula abbotti breeds only on Christmas Island (to Australia), though it once had a much wider distribution in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. One female was recently observed on Rota Island (Northern Mariana Islands to USA), though it is not known whether it is vagrant or a solitary resident (Pratt et al. 2009). The population was estimated at 2,300 pairs in 1967, declining to 1,900 pairs by 1983. Newly discovered breeding sites brought the total to an estimated 2,500 active pairs, following a survey in 1991 (Yorkston and Green 1997), which is regarded as the most accurate and comprehensive to date (James 2007). A helicopter survey in 2002 recorded about 1,500 active nest sites (Commonwealth of Australia 2004), but the results were not verified by ground-based surveys (James 2007). Overall, it seems that the breeding population was more or less stable between 1991 and 2002 (Commonwealth of Australia 2004, P. Green per D. James and M. Jeffery in litt. 2005), but the survey techniques are not directly comparable (D. James in litt. 2005, 2007, James 2007). The species's breeding cycle takes 15-18 months, meaning that successful pairs nest once every two years whilst unsuccessful pairs may breed in successive years or take 'rest years', thus only a proportion of the breeding population breeds in a given year, and this is dependent on nesting success in the previous year (James 2007). Thus in 2000, following on from the 1991 survey, the total population of mature individuals was put at c.6,000. It disperses within the Indian Ocean. Recent records from the Banda Sea indicate either a major extension of its known range or unknown breeding colonies.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Historic Range:
Indian Ocean_Christmas Island

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

Christmas I. (e Indian Ocean).
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

Believed to be previously widespread in the Indian Ocean, although breeding is restricted to Christmas Island. Long absences from the island suggest that foraging may occur far from this area and sightings have recently been reported off Java and northwest Australia (5).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Type Information

Type for Sula abbotti Ridgway
Catalog Number: USNM 128761
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Birds
Sex/Stage: Male; Adult
Preparation: Skin: Whole
Collector(s): W. Abbott
Year Collected: 1892
Locality: Assumption Island, Aldabra Islands, Seychelles, Indian Ocean
  • Type: Ridgway. August 16, 1893. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 16: 599.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Birds

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It nests in tall rainforest trees, mostly above 150 m elevation in the western, central and northern areas of Christmas Island (Commonwealth of Australia 2004), and lays one egg. Most successful parents can only breed biennally. It may first breed at eight years of age, and its average lifespan may be c.40 years. It feeds at sea on squid and fish. The at sea distribution of this species is poorly known. It was previously thought that cold water upwellings south of Java could be important feeding areas for breeding boobies (Commonwealth of Australia 2004, Olsen 2005), however tracking studies seem to indicate that they simply forage within 40-100 km of Christmas Island and show no association with any clear oceanographic features (D. James in litt. 2005, 2007).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Foraging occurs in the waters of the Indian Ocean, whilst breeding is in rainforest on the plateau and higher terraces of Christmas Island (5). Nests are constructed in tall, emergent rainforest trees (6), especially those with access from the northwest into the prevailing wind (5). Trees preferentially have an open canopy and interwoven terminal growth, which helps to support juveniles (5).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B2ab(ii,iii,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s
Garnett, S., Green, P., Hennicke, J., James, D., Jeffery, M., Low, T. & O'Dowd, D.

Justification
This species breeds in the limited suitable habitat of just one area of a very small island, and it has a small population which has declined rapidly owing to the effects of past habitat clearance. Recent die-back of some of the breeding habitat indicates that habitat quality continues to decline, although it is unclear whether this die-back has been caused by introduced yellow crazy ants. Because of the significance of even minimal declines in habitat quality within the limited breeding habitat of this booby, it is listed as Endangered.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Current Listing Status Summary

Status: Endangered
Date Listed: 06/14/1976
Lead Region: Foreign (Region 10) 
Where Listed: Entire


Population detail:

Population location: Entire
Listing status: E

For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Sula abbotti, see its USFWS Species Profile

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List 2007 (1) and listed on Appendix 1 of CITES (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
Following an estimate of 2,500 active pairs in 1991, the total number of mature individuals has been put at c.6,000, equating to c.9,000 individuals in total. It should be noted that only a proportion breed in a given year owing to a 15-18 month breeding cycle and the possibility that some unsuccessful pairs take 'rest years' rather than breed in successive years. Despite a helicopter survey in 2002, the 1991 survey is considered the most accurate and comprehensive.

Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
During 1965-1987, phosphate extraction resulted in the destruction of approximately one third of nesting habitat. Some trees in nesting areas have degenerated, but the extent of this is unquantified (D. James in litt. 2005, 2007). In addition, exotic plants that have colonised and been introduced to old mine sites may invade existing forest and threaten habitat rehabilitation (Commonwealth of Australia 2004, Olsen 2005). Future habitat loss is possible through clearance for mining (S. Garnett in litt. 2003). In 2007, significant patches of mature secondary forest were cleared for mining (D. James in litt. 2005, 2007). Alsoin 2007, a new application to mine a 250 ha area of rainforest (P. Green in litt. 2007) was turned down (J. Hennicke in litt. 2007), but has subsequently gone to appeal (D. James in litt. 2005, 2007). Plans for a satellite launch pad on the island are not proceeding at present (T. Low in litt. 2006). The effect of satellite launches on this species is unknown (Commonwealth of Australia 2004, Olsen 2005). Breeding boobies are vulnerable to extreme weather events. In 1988, a cyclone destroyed a third of monitored fledglings and nest-sites. In wind-affected areas, increased turbulence causes higher adult mortality and reduces fledging success. Artificial forest clearings, e.g. for roads and buildings, also cause wind turbulence. Possibly the most serious threat is the introduced yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes which formed super-colonies during the 1990s and spread rapidly to cover 28% of the forest on the island. However, control efforts have been successful (P. Green and D. O'Dowd in litt. 2003), and at the beginning of 2005 there were an estimated 300 ha with A. gracilipes present on Christmas Island, with densities considerably lower than prior to control (D. James and M. Jeffery in litt. 2005). Despite the successes, in 2006 the ants were regarded as widespread and patchily common (T. Low in litt. 2006). Allowed to spread uncontrolled ant super-colonies may prey directly on nestlings or cause nest abandonment. However, there have been no observations of ants preying on the species, and comparison of ant distribution and densities with P. abbotti distribution showed no sign of nest abandonment in ant-infested areas (D. James and M. Jeffery in litt. 2005). Super-colonies alter island ecology by killing the dominant life-form, the red crab Gecaroidea natalis, and by farming scale insects which damage trees. A. gracilipes occurs from below ground-level to the canopy where P. abbotti nests. There are signs of forest die-back in a small area of breeding habitat, which may be indirectly caused or exacerbated by A. gracilipes, but its impact is unlikely to be severe (D. James and M. Jeffery in litt. 2005). Less specific threats include over-fishing and marine pollution. In addition, climate change may threaten the species through changes to sea surface temperatures, rainfall patterns and El Niño Southern Oscillation (Commonwealth of Australia 2004, Olsen 2005), although it is unlikely to be affected by sea level rise as it nests above 100 m (D. James in litt. 2005, 2007). At sea, birds may suffer from direct hunting and bycatch, but this has not been documented (Commonwealth of Australia 2004, Olsen 2005). If some birds feed close to Java this could bring them into contact with Taiwanese and Indonesian fisheries (Olsen 2005).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Phosphate mining on Christmas Island in the 1960s and 70s caused the destruction of a third of Abbott's booby nesting habitat and has led to the subsequent deterioration of the remaining forest (4). Birds are strongly attached to nest sites, and clearings are more exposed to wind turbulence, which has a detrimental effect on breeding success and causes higher adult mortality (6). Recent development proposals for the island have again raised concern over the viability of remaining breeding habitat (5).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I. A national park was created in 1980, which has since been extended to cover more than 60% of the island (D. James in litt. 2005, 2007) and includes most breeding areas. A lease agreement with Christmas Island Phosphates Pty Ltd prevents clearance of primary rainforest and requires permits to clear regrowth. A monitoring programme was in place between 1982 and 1993. Since 1984, c.20% of mined areas adjacent to nesting areas have been planted in an ongoing restoration programme. A control programme for A. gracilipes has been successfully initiated since 2000 and effectively eliminated the ant from 2,800 ha of forest (95% of its former extent) (P. Green and D. O'Dowd in litt. 2003). Monitoring of the problem continues and hand-baiting measures have been ongoing. Aerial baiting was carried out in September 2002 and proved to be successful against major colonies (Olsen 2005), eliminating over 98% of ants (D. James in litt. 2005, 2007). However, the ants have since recovered (D. James in litt. 2005, 2007). The ants remained persistent in 2006, and it was thought that perpetual baiting would be the only means of controlling them (T. Low in litt. 2006). The bait used so far is known to be toxic to invertebrates, including crabs, and although alternatives have been trialled, an effective replacement has not been found (D. James in litt. 2005, 2007). Control of the scale bugs that the ants tend for their sugar secretions has been suggested, in order to reduce this food supply (T. Low in litt. 2006, D. James in litt. 2005, 2007). In 2004, 2005 and 2006, surveys were carried out to assess the impact of the construction of an immigration centre on a breeding colony adjacent to the site (James 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor the abundance and spread of A. gracilipes (Commonwealth of Australia 2004) whilst continuing to implement control measures. Develop and implement appropriate monitoring techniques (Commonwealth of Australia 2004). Monitor impact of rehabilitation efforts on trends and distribution. Identify feeding habitat of breeding adults and juveniles (by satellite tracking studies) (Commonwealth of Australia 2004, Olsen 2005). Negotiate with the mining company to ensure protection of all breeding habitat and appropriate buffers. Minimise and monitor effects of developments such as the launch pad (Commonwealth of Australia 2004). Develop a wind turbulence model to guide habitat restoration (Commonwealth of Australia 2004). Continue to implement weed management strategy (Commonwealth of Australia 2004). Monitor likely impact of developing fisheries around Christmas Island (Commonwealth of Australia 2004). Address threats from global climate change at national and international levels (Commonwealth of Australia 2004). Monitor the possible effects of climate change on the species (Commonwealth of Australia 2004). Protect nest cluster (c.30 nests) discovered in 2002 (Olsen 2005).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

The majority of Abbott's booby nest sites occur within the Christmas Island National Park, which was established in 1980 and covers 63 percent of the island (6). Nest site locations are monitored and the regeneration of previously cleared forest has occurred on much of the island (5). Although mining was resumed in 1990, it only involved the reworking of previously mined areas (6). The continued preservation, and ban on clearing, of the unique Christmas Island rainforest will be the key to the future viability of the Abbott's booby population (5).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Abbott's booby

Abbott's booby (Papasula abbotti) is an endangered seabird of the sulid family, which includes gannets and boobies. It is a large booby, smaller than gannets, and is placed within its own monotypic genus. It was first identified from a specimen collected by William Louis Abbott, who discovered it on Assumption Island in 1892.

Abbott's booby breeds only in a few spots on the Australian territory of Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean, although it formerly had a much wider range. It has white plumage with black markings, and is adapted for long-distance flight. It forages around Christmas Island, often around nutrient-rich oceanic upwellings, although individuals can travel for thousands of kilometres. Pairs mate for life and raise one chick every two or three years, nesting near the top of emergent trees in the rainforest canopy.

The population is decreasing. Historically much of its former habitat was logged to make way for phosphate mining. Some logging continues, and the effects of the former logging continue to adversely affect the current population. Another threat has been caused by the introduction of yellow crazy ants, which decrease habitat quality. Minimal habitat declines have a significant effect on the bird population. All nesting areas have been included in a national park.

Taxonomy[edit]

The first specimen was collected from Assumption Island in 1892 by American naturalist William Louis Abbott, northwest of Madagascar, although there is debate on whether he actually collected it from the nearby Glorioso Island. It was described by Robert Ridgway in 1893. In 1988 it was placed in its own genus by Olson & Warheit 1988. The basal characters present in this species suggest it may be an early branch of the sulid family, predating the split between gannets and other boobies.[2] This was reinforced by analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 1997, which indicated Abbott's booby was an early offshoot of the gannets rather than the other boobies.[3] However, 2011 study of multiple genes found it to be basal to all other gannets and boobies, and likely to have diverged from them around 22 million years ago.[4]

Description[edit]

Abbott's booby is the largest of all booby species, and is adapted to long-distance flight.[5] Individuals can reach 80 centimetres (31 in) from beak to tail,[6] and weigh about 1460 g. It is distinguished from other sulids in the region due to its black and white plumage.[7] They have an off-white plumage, which contrasts with black eye patches, black wings and tails, and black flank marks. Their feet are blue and webbed, with black outer ends. Males have pale grey bills with a black tip, whereas females have pink bills with a black tip.[2] Chicks have white down and a cape of black scapular feathers.[6]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Abbott's booby is the only booby restricted to a single location,[6] although its former distribution covered much of the Indian and Pacific Oceans.[1] There is fossil evidence of its former presence in the South Pacific, and eyewitness reports of it formerly breeding on the Mascarene Islands. In April 2007, an individual of this species was photographed at a booby colony on Rota in the Pacific Ocean,[8] and the same individual has been seen off-and-on in the red-footed booby colony there through at least 2011 (Pratt in press).

It breeds in tall trees in the plateau forests of the central and western areas of Christmas Island, and in the upper terrace forests of the north coast.[5] Nest distribution is patchy, based on topography, with the majority of nests in trees on uneven terrain. Nests are usually built on Syzygium nervosum and Planchonella nitida trees, although emergent Tristiropsis acutangula are sometimes used. Due to the trade winds flowing south-east from April to November, trees that can be approached from the northwest are favoured.[2]

Its foraging range usually reaches 40–100 kilometres (25–62 mi) from Christmas Island, although individuals are often seen in Indonesia and vagrants reach as far as mainland Australia. A single female was recently observed on Rota Island, and there are some records from the Banda Sea indicating either an even larger range or unknown breeding colonies.[1]

Population[edit]

The Abbott's booby population is the best documented, and smallest, of all sulid populations.[6] It was first assessed in 1967,[2] resulting in an estimate of 2,300 breeding pairs. By 1983 the number of breeding pairs had declined to 1,900. The most comprehensive survey was made in 1991, and included new breeding sites that were unknown in previous surveys. It brought the estimate of breeding pairs up to 2,500, with the total number of mature individuals being placed at 6,000. A helicopter survey in 2002 noted 1,500 nest sites. The population was stable from 1991 to 2002.[1]

It is estimated that the population size will decrease more than 80% over the next three generations, or 120 years.[9] Current decline is attributed to a low recruitment rate and the negative effects of wind turbulence on a breeding population. Due to their small population, limited habitat, low fecundity, and limited distribution, Abbott's booby is at high risk of extinction if further habitat disturbance occurs.[10]

Ecology[edit]

Individuals are solitary long-distance travellers, who can range thousands of kilometres from Christmas Island. They are very vocal, with a wide range of calls. Due to their size, they require a large clear space to take off. herefore they nest near the tops of trees. If an individual falls to the forest floor, it will starve unless it can climb high enough to be able to catch the wind and take off.[5] Adults rarely fight owing to the risk of falling.[6] Fledglings must succeed in their first attempt at flight; unsuccessful attempts rarely result in the fledgling's survival.[5]

Adults forage at sea from October to April, although they will return if they have a chick that is dependent on them.[5] They forage in offshore waters,[6] eating fish and squid. No feeding patterns are known,[1] although it is though they forage in an ocean upwelling off Java, 300 kilometres (186 mi) northwest of Christmas Island.[5] Chicks are fed through regurgitation by the adults.[7]

Breeding[edit]

Courtship takes the form of a face-to-face display. Partners mate for life, and maintain the same nest site throughout their lives.[6] Nests are made near the top of rainforest trees, 10–40 metres (33–131 ft) off the ground,[2] usually at elevations of 150 metres (492 ft) or higher.[1] Breeding cycles last 15–18 months, and only one egg is laid during each cycle. Successful pairs can nest once every two years, but often take rest years between attempts to raise a chick. These rest years are taken even if the couple is unsuccessful in raising their chick.[1] Most pairs only breed once every three years.[5]

Mating usually takes place in April, and eggs are laid between April and July.[5] Eggs are equal to 8% of the female's body weight. They are incubated under the webbed feet of the parents, which become vascularised and warm.[6] Incubation is undertaken by both parents, who take shifts of up to two days. Eggs are incubated for about 56 days,[5] which is 30 days longer than in other sulids.[2] Chicks hatch from June to November, after the eggs are incubated for around 56 days.[5] They take 170 days to fully fledge, and an additional 200 days to become fully independent.[5] Most chicks make their first flight in December or January.[7][11] Fledglings reach maturity at around eight years of age, and can live up to 40 years.[1]

Threats and conservation[edit]

Even a minimal decline in habitat quality can have a significant impact on these birds. During 1965–1987 phosphate mining destroyed one third of the Abbott's booby's nesting habitat. Degeneration has continued, with the health of individual trees decreasing.[1] Clearings leftover from logging have increased wind in the canopy, generating turbulence up to 300 metres (984 ft) downwind of the clearings. This causes lower breeding success due to chicks being dislodged and not surviving their first flight. Adult survival is also reduced due to increased risk of them falling to the ground when landing.[10] This affects 36% of the current population.[2]

Introduced plants are foiling habitat rehabilitation in abandoned mining sites and pose a risk if they invade primary forest. Continued mining remains an issue, with mature secondary forest cleared for mining in 2007. A request to mine in what is currently 250 ha of forest was turned down in 2007, but is under appeal.[1] Christmas Island Phosphates Pty Ltd may not clear primary forest, and requires a permit to clear regrowth.[1]

Christmas Island National Park includes all known Abbott's booby nest sites.[10] It was created in 1980 and was subsequently expanded to cover 60% of the island.[1] The population was monitored from 1982 to 1993, and in 1984 20% of mined areas next to nesting sites had been replanted.[1] The Environment Australia Abbott's Booby Recovery Plan aims to regenerate forests and help prevent further decline in the species. Forest rehabilitation has now been attempted in about 30% of abandoned mining areas, with a focus on areas close to primary forest where new growth could act as a wind break. Most of the planted trees are Foundation species, with non-native species being used if they don't invade the environment. Part of the forest regeneration project is financed by the phosphate mining company as part of their lease agreement.[10]

An invasion of the yellow crazy ant poses continued risk for the booby population. Yellow crazy ants formed supercolonies in the 1990s and spread throughout 28% of the islands forest. Starting in 2000, efforts to control it eliminated it from 2,800 ha of forest, resulting in a 95% reduction of its range. The range was 300 ha in 2005, at much lower densities than originally, although it has slightly recovered since then. It is thought the ants could prey on nestlings and cause nest abandonment, although this has not been observed. They do however disrupt the ecosystem by killing red crabs, and farm scale insects that damage the trees the boobies nest in.[1]

Overfishing and marine pollution pose additional problems for the population. It is thought the birds may be directly hunted[1] or caught as bycatch in longline fishing,[9] as they may come into contact with Indonesian and Taiwanese fisheries. This has not been documented.[1]

Plans for a satellite launch pad to be built on the island have been discussed, but are not currently being put into action.[1]

In 1988 a cyclone destroyed a third of all nests and fledglings. Climate change resulting in increased sea surface temperatures, changes in rainfall patterns, and changes in the El Niño Southern Oscillation may further damage the population due to changing weather patterns.[1] The increase in sea temperatures reduce breeding success, as the best feeding is found in cold water caused by nutrient-rich upwellings.[2]

Abbott's booby is listed under CITES Appendix I, and is classified as endangered in the IUCN Redlist.[1] It is also classified as endangered under the Australian Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.[2] Many Abbott's booby are in the National Park, so the nests are monitored.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s BirdLife International (2012). "Papasula abbotti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Papasula abbotti – Abbott's Booby". Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  3. ^ Friesen V.L.; Anderson D.J (1997). "Phylogeny and Evolution of the Sulidae (Aves: Pelecaniformes): A Test of Alternative Modes of Speciation". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 7 (2): 252–60. doi:10.1006/mpev.1996.0397. 
  4. ^ Patterson, S.A.; Morris-pocock, J.A.; Friesen, V.L (2011). "A multilocus phylogeny of the Sulidae (Aves: Pelecaniformes)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 58 (2): 181–91. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.11.021. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Abbott's Booby (Papsula abbotti)". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Nelson, J. Bryian (2004). "Gannets and Boobies". In Perrins, Christopher. The New Enyclopedia of Birds. Oxford University Press. pp. 83, 85–87. ISBN 0-19-852506-0. 
  7. ^ a b c Marchant, S.; & Higgins, P.J. (Eds). (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 1: Ratites to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Melbourne. ISBN 0-19-553068-3
  8. ^ Pratt, H. Douglas; Retter, Michael L. P.; Chapman, Douglas; Ord, W. Michael; Pisano, Paul (2009). "An Abbott’s Booby Papasula abbotti on Rota, Mariana Islands: first historical record for the Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Bulletin of the British Ornithological Club 129 (2): 87–91. Retrieved 17 September 2014. 
  9. ^ a b "Recovery Outline Abbott's Booby". Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Conservation". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  11. ^ Nelson, J. Bryan. (1978). The Sulidae. Gannets and Boobies. Oxford University Press: Oxford. ISBN 0-19-714104-8
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!