The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. IUCN Red List (September, 2007) http://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2. BirdLife International (April, 2003) External link.
  • 2009. "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
  • 2011. Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource, 2011.02.08
  • 2011. IOC World Bird List, Master List v2.9
  • 3. CITES (April, 2003) http://www.cites.org External link.
  • 4. Global Register of Migratory Species (March, 2008) http://www.groms.de External link.
  • 5. International Penguin Conservation (April, 2003) http://www.penguins.cl External link.
  • 6. Animal Diversity Web (April, 2003)$narrative.html$narrative.html External link.
  • Adriaens, P. (2015). Spheniscus demersus. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • BirdLife International 2013. Spheniscus demersus
  • Brown, L.H., E.K. Urban & K. Newman (1982). The Birds of Africa, Volume I. Academic Press, London.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from
  • Cooper, J. 1977. Moult of the black-footed penguin. International Zoo Yearbook, 18: 22-27.
  • Crawford, R., J. David, L. Shannon, J. Kemper, N. Klages, J. Roux, L. Underhill, V. Ward, A. Williams, A. Wolfaardt. 2001. African penguins as predators and prey-coping (or not) with change. African Journal of Marine Science, 23: 435-447.
  • Crawford, R., L. Underhill, J. Coetzee, T. Fairweather, L. Shannon, A. Wolfaardt. 2008. Influences of the abundance and distribution of prey on african penguins Spheniscus demersus off western South Africa. African Journal of Marine Science, 30: 167-175.
  • Crawford, R., P. Barham, L. Underhill, L. Shannon, J. Coetzee, B. Dyer, T. Leshoro, L. Upfold. 2006. The influence of food availability on breeding success of african penguins Spheniscus demersus at Robben Island, South Africa. Biological Conservation, 132/1: 119-125.
  • Cunningham, G., V. Strauss, P. Ryan. 2008. African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) can detect dimethyl sulphide, a prey-related odour. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 221: 3123-3127.
  • Frost, P., W. Siegfried, A. Burger. 2009. Behavioural adaptations of the jackass penguin, Spheniscus demersus to a hot, arid environment. Journal of Zoology, 179: 165-187.
  • Frost, P., W. Slegfried, J. Cooper. 1976. Conservation of the jackass penguin (Spheniscus demersus). Biological Conservation, 9/2: 79-99.
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. ix + 259
  • Heath, R., R. Randall. 1989. Foraging ranges and movements of jackass penguins (Spheniscus demersus) established through radio telemetry. Journal of Zoology, 217: 367-379.
  • Jones, H., G. Shellam. 1999. Blood parasites in penguins, and their potential impact on conservation. Marine Ornithology, 27: 181-184.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Randall, R., B. Randall. 1990. Cetaceans as predators of jackass penguins Spheniscus demersus: deductions based on behaviour. Marine Ornithology, 18: 9-12.
  • Shannon, L., R. Crawford. 1999. Management of the african penguin Spheniscus demersus-insights from modeling. Marine Ornithology, 27: 119-128.
  • Stefoff, R. 2005. Penguins. 99 White Planes Road Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.
  • Thumser, N., M. Ficken. 1998. A Comparison of the Vocal Repertoires of Captive Spheniscus Penguins. Marine Ornithology, 26: 41-48.
  • Whittington, P., B. Dyer, N. Klages. 2000. Maximum Longevities of African Penguins Spheniscus Demersus Based on Banding Records. Marine Ornithology, 28: 81-82.
  • Wilson, R., G. La Cock, M. Wilson, F. Mollagee. 1985. Differential digestion of fish and squid in jackass penguins Spheniscus demersus. Ornis Scandinavica, 16: 77-79.


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