Overview

Brief Summary

Description

The yellow-eyed penguin is one of the most endangered of all penguin species (3). These birds are slate grey with a white breast. As their common name suggests they have yellow eyes, accentuated by the yellow band that runs from the eyes around the back of the head (4). Males and females are identical but juveniles lack the yellow eyes and bands of older birds (2). The Maori name for these birds is 'Hoiho', which means 'the noise shouter' in reference to their shrill call (5).
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Biology

Yellow-eyed penguins are not particularly sociable, breeding in spaced-out territories in the forest rather than the close-knit colonies of other species (3). Pairs are monogamous and stay together for life. The breeding season is particularly long, beginning with courtship in August; the clutch of two eggs is laid in mid-September to mid-October on a nest constructed from sticks (2). Both parents help to incubate the eggs, which can take up to two months. For the next six weeks the adults will take it in turns to stay with the chick whilst the other forages for food (2). Penguins moult once a year but during this time they need to remain on land while the feathers are replaced (3). The three-week moult takes place in February and March following the fledging of the chicks. Penguins need to accumulate considerable resources before this takes place, as they can loose up to four kilograms of body weight during the moult (2). Yellow-eyed penguins feed on a variety of fish including red cod, opal fish, sprat and silversides. They tend to forage within 15 kilometres (2) of the shore and can dive up to 160 metres (3).
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Distribution

Yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes) are island endemic and are found in the southern regions of New Zealand, including Stewart Island, South Island, the Otago Peninsula and a few other islands in the same region. These penguins are not migratory and stay in this range year round. They only leave the island to hunt off the coast of New Zealand and the respective islands they inhabit.

Biogeographic Regions: australian (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

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Range Description

Megadyptes antipodes is endemic to New Zealand where it breeds on the South Island's south-east coast (523 pairs in 2010-2011 [D. Houston in litt. 2012]), Stewart Island and offshore islands of Stewart Island (220-400 pairs in 1994, dropping to 178 pairs in 1999-2001 [Massaro and Blair 2003]), Auckland Islands (520-570 pairs) and Campbell Islands (405 pairs) (Moore 2001, D. Houston in litt. 2007). Two severe mortality events in 1986 and 1990 each halved the number of South Island pairs, and in 2004 50% of chicks in South Island were killed by diptheritic stomatisis (D. Houston in litt. 2007). However, numbers have recovered to 1980 levels (D. Houston in litt. 2007). The Catlins population (south-east coast of South Island) may have declined by 75% since the 1940s (Williams 1995, Heather and Robertson 1997). Numbers of individuals on Campbell Island declined between 1987 and 1998 (Moore et al. 2002). Adults are sedentary, but juveniles disperse north as far as the Cook Strait (Marchant and Higgins 1990).

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Range

Auckland I., Stewart I., Campbell I. and South I. (New Zealand).
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Historic Range:


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Range

Endemic to New Zealand, breeding takes place on the southeast coast of South Island and on Foveaus Strait, Stewart, Auckland and Campbell Islands (6).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Yellow-eyed penguins are relatively large in comparison to other penguins living in similar conditions. Their height ranges from 56 to 78 cm, with an average height of 70 cm. The mass of these penguins ranges from 5 to 8 kg. These physical characteristics make Megadyptes antipodes the largest penguin that does not live in the Antarctic. A defining trait of this particular penguin is their yellow eyes. The characteristic used to distinguish between adult and juvenile penguins is the presence of yellow plumage on the adult's heads. Yellow feathers are not present on juvenile penguins until they molt, around the age of one. Megadyptes antipodes exhibits sexual dimorphism: males have a carotenoid derived ornament. The difference in males and females can be seen in the pigmentation of the head feathers (plumage). Carotenoids are responsible for the bright yellow coloration of the male's head and are hypothesized to be a signal of parental quality, although few studies have been conducted on the subject.

Range mass: 5 to 8 kg.

Range length: 56 to 78 cm.

Average length: 70 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes colored or patterned differently; male more colorful

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Type Information

Type for Megadyptes antipodes
Catalog Number: USNM A15655
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Birds
Sex/Stage: Male; Adult
Preparation: Skin: Whole
Collector(s): S. Holmes
Locality: Auckland Islands, New Zealand, Australia
  • Type: Peale. 1848. U.S. Exploring Expedition. 8 (mamm. and orn.): 260, pl. lxx, fig.1.
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Ecology

Habitat

Yellow-eyed penguins inhabit island shorelines in New Zealand. Most of the shore is covered in coastal forest, where the penguins live and nest. These birds are primarily terrestrial and only enter the water to hunt.

Average elevation: 0 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

Aquatic Biomes: coastal

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
On islands it usually nests in forest, while in the South Island it tends to nest in scrub remnants (Marchant and Higgins 1990). Nests must have surrounding vegetation that conceals them from visual contact with conspecifics for successful breeding (Seddon and Davis 1989). It is a solitary breeder. Two eggs are laid in mid-September to mid-October, with hatching occurring at the beginning of November. Chicks fledge from mid-February to mid-March (Yellow-eyed Penguin Trust in litt. 2009). It feeds primarily on red cod, opal fish, sprat (van Heezik 1990), silversides, ahuru, blue cod and squid (Yellow-eyed Penguin Trust in litt. 2009). The species's generation length is estimated to be 5-7 years (Ellis et al. 1998).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
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Yellow-eyed penguins breed in forest or scrubland, choosing to build nests against rocks or tree trunks, which provide some protection from the elements (2).
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Trophic Strategy

Megadyptes antipodes has a diet that consists mostly of small prey, either juveniles or species whose adults are small. Yellow-eyed penguins are carnivores. Their diet is mainly composed of fishes including opalfish Hemerocoetes monopterygius, red cods Pseudophycis bachus, blue cods Parapercis colias, silversides Argentina elongata and spats Sprattus muelleri. However, they also eat mollusks and some crustaceans including Nototodarus sloani and Nyctiphanes australis, respectively. Most of their hunting occurs off the coast of New Zealand at the edge of the continental shelf, making them marine predators. Their foraging behavior depends on the breeding season. Penguins that have not bred successfully travelled greater distances to hunt. Their trips off shore are relatively shorter than trips of other penguins of a similar size.

Animal Foods: fish; eggs; mollusks; aquatic crustaceans

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore )

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Associations

Plasmodium relictum is a parasite that has been found on wild yellow-eyed penguins. There is not much information on the ecosystem role of Megadyptes antipodes. Their foraging range is off the continental shelf and they are predators to various fish species. When on land, their only major predators are mammals introduced by humans. They are also prey to New Zealand sea lions, but they are not a major component of the sea lion's diet.

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

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Predation is important to all animals and crucial to those animals that are threatened or endangered. Megadyptes antipodes falls under the crucial category because they are a threatened species. The key predators that threaten M. antipodes are terrestrial mammals that were introduced by humans. These predators include ferrets Mustela furo, feral house cats Felis catus, humans, and domestic dogs Canis lupus familiaris. Mustela furo and F. catus are responsible for predation of newly born penguins, while humans and C. lupus familiaris are the only terrestrial mammals that are capable of predation on adult yellow-eyed penguins. However, non-terrestrial predators include New Zealand sea lions Phocarctos hookeri. Yellow-eyed penguins do not have any anti-predator mechanisms against terrestrial mammals because they are a relatively new predator, although their conservation status does help serve as an anti-predator mechanism.

Known Predators:

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Potential mates communicate acoustically, via shrill calls. Their nest sites are usually well hidden, this call is used for mates to find each other, as well as juveniles. They do not receive much social stimuli from other penguins due to their isolated nature and are easily startled by humans.

Communication Channels: acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Life Expectancy

The average lifespan of Megadyptes antipodes is 23 years. Male yellow-eyed penguins typically live longer than females. Predation does not play a big role in determining their lifespan. The factor with the most influence is the amount of breeding, those who do not or cannot breed typically live longer than those that do breed.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
23 years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
23 years.

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Reproduction

Megadyptes antipodes is monogamous: a male has one female partner each breeding season. There is a great amount of parental care given by yellow-eyed penguins, which contributes to the monogamous mating system. This species exhibits sexual dimorphism, a difference in secondary characteristics between males and females, responsible for mate selection. In M. antipodes, the sexually dimorphic characteristic is the yellow plumage feathers found on males, females use the color for mate selection. This color pattern is believed to be indicative of mate quality; however, more evidence is required to determine how mates are chosen. Megadyptes antipodes exhibits nesting behavior that influences the social structure of the birds. Their nesting sites are typically very large and isolated. Research indicates that the more isolated the nesting site, the more effective the breeding. Most of their nesting sites are under the cover of surrounding plants, the optimal setting is a coastal forest. These isolated nests are one factor that prevents yellow-eyed penguins from being colonial birds.

Mating System: monogamous

Megadyptes antipodes is a relative of crested penguins and has similar reproductive behavior. Yellow-eyed penguins reproduce during the same breeding season, every year. Their breeding season starts in the middle of August and typically lasts 28 weeks. During this time, penguins find a mate and build a nest where they will lay and incubate their eggs. This species lays only two eggs each year, this is a characteristic shared with other crested penguins. These eggs are laid at the same time, usually in September and October. Unlike many other penguin species, yellow-eyed penguins lay two similarly sized eggs that will both yield viable offspring. In contrast, many penguin species lay eggs of two different sizes. Since both eggs will yield viable offspring, they must incubate both. This is likely due to the amount of the hormone prolactin that is secreted. Once the eggs are laid, they take an average of 43 days to hatch; hatching typically occurs in November, after the incubation period. Juvenile yellow-eyed penguins usually reach sexually maturity after two to three years for females and three to four years for males.

Breeding interval: Yellow-eyed penguins breed annually.

Breeding season: Yellow-eyed penguins breed August through March.

Range eggs per season: 2 to 2.

Range time to hatching: 38 to 54 days.

Average time to hatching: 43 days.

Range fledging age: 3 to 4.5 months.

Average fledging age: 3.5 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 2 to 3 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 3 to 4 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

Parental care in Megadyptes antipodes is displayed by both the male and female parent. Parental care can be seen in yellow-eyed penguins starting at the incubation period, through the growing of the juvenile, until it reaches about six weeks old. Both the male and female parent takes part in the incubation period. Once the eggs are incubated and hatch, a new form of parental investment begins, involving the protection of the young and providing the necessary resources for them. This period is known as brooding and usually takes about six weeks. Neither the role of protecting the young, nor finding food is reserved for a specific parent; one parent guards the newly hatched penguins, while the other hunts. After this six week brooding period, parental protection is reduced, but provisioning is increased. Juveniles will ultimately fledge and leave the nest area to provide for themselves.

Parental Investment: male parental care ; female parental care ; pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Megadyptes antipodes

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Megadyptes antipodes is endangered according to the IUCN Red List and is threatened according to the United States Federal list. The main cause contributing to the status of yellow-eyed penguins is deforestation on the coast of New Zealand. There are various conservation efforts, including penguin reserves, such as Penguin Place in Dunedin, New Zealand. These reserves allow visitors to view the penguins for a fee, which helps conserve M. antipodes. Another conservation effort is the Yellow-eyed Penguin Trust, which teaches people about the penguins and collects funds for their conservation. There are only a few thousand yellow-eyed penguins living in the world today.

US Federal List: threatened

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B2b(iii,v)c(iv)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s
Houston, D. & McKinlay, B.

Justification
This species is listed as Endangered because it is confined to a very small range when breeding, in which its forest/scrub habitat has declined in quality. Its population has undergone extreme fluctuations and is now thought to be in overall decline.

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Current Listing Status Summary

Status: Threatened
Date Listed: 09/02/2010
Lead Region: Foreign (Region 10) 
Where Listed: Entire


Population detail:

Population location: Entire
Listing status: T

For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Megadyptes antipodes , see its USFWS Species Profile

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Status

Classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List 2007 (1).
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Population

Population
Moore (1992) estimated a total population of 5,930-6,970 birds in 1988/1989, comprising 3,560-4,180 breeders and 2,370-2,790 non-breeders (McKinlay 2001).


Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Introduced ferret Mustela furo, stoat M. erminea and cats are major predators in the South Island. On Stewart Island, the level of threat posed by cats is unclear because of a high rate of chick mortality through starvation and disease (King 2008). Cats are present on Auckland Island, but are absent from Campbell Island, Codfish Island and Enderby Island (D. Houston in litt. 2012). Predation by pigs on the main Auckland Islands is known to occur (B. McKinlay per D. Houston in litt. 2012), but the impact is not known and could be significant. Rogue female Hooker's sea lions eat 20-30 birds annually on the Otago Peninsula (Lalas et al. 2007). Population crashes may be due to avian malaria or biotoxins (Anon 2004), and food shortages due to sea temperature changes may also be a periodic problem (Taylor 2000). Disease appears to be a major problem in some populations in some years, with diptheritic stomatisis (caused by the bacteria Corynebacterium amycolatum) and a Leucocytozoon blood parasite (formerly only known from Fiordland penguins) major causes of mortality for chicks (Houston 2005, Hill et al. 2007). Human disturbance, even from tourists at breeding colonies, negatively affects fledgling weight and probability of survival (McClung et al. 2004). Drowning in fishing nets and accidental fires are additional known threats (Rance 1995).

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The yellow-eyed penguin may be the rarest penguin in the world. The coastal forests of their habitat, particularly of mainland New Zealand, have been destroyed to make way for development and agriculture. Introduced sheep and cattle pose a threat as they can trample on penguin nests and overgraze the area, destroying further habitat (2). In 1986 and 1990 there were two major population crashes, the causes of which remain a mystery (6). The other major threat to the yellow-eyed penguin comes from introduced mammalian predators such as ferrets, cats, rats and dogs; juvenile penguins or adults during their moult phase are extremely vulnerable to predation and numbers have been decimated over the years (2).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
A wide range of research projects has been completed in the South Island. The Yellow-eyed Penguin Trust was formed to raise awareness and funds. Many mainland sites have been fenced to minimise trampling by farm stock. Predator trapping is intensive during the breeding season in several South Island sites, and habitat is being restored (Heather and Robertson 1997, Ellis et al. 1998). Distribution data were in the process of being published in early 2012 (D. Houston in litt. 2012).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Obtain accurate census data for the Auckland Islands. Census South Island colonies every five years, and study sites annually (Taylor 2000). Eradicate predators from Auckland Islands. Investigate the impact of commercial fishing activity on Yellow-eyed Penguins (set-netting and because of evidence that bottom disturbance by trawling/dredging may influence penguin behaviour and food quality). Regulate tourist access to breeding colonies on South Island.

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Conservation

The New Zealand Department of Conservation Hoiho Recovery Plan is currently underway, which aims to promote the recovery of this species and to involve local people in their conservation (5). A number of schemes are already in place including the protection of certain key habitats and the removal of predators. The Yellow-eyed Penguin Trust has introduced a number of important conservation initiatives and research, including the banning of dogs from certain sensitive beaches (2). The Trust is careful to work extremely closely with local residents over these sensitive issues (2). Every effort is being made to secure the future of one of New Zealand's avian treasures.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

There are no known adverse affects of Megadyptes antipodes on humans.

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Yellow-eyed penguins provide a positive impact on the New Zealand economy because of the tourism industry built upon viewing them. However, the birds are not as cooperative as some other animals involved in ecotourism because they are shy and easily scared by humans. When humans view yellow-eyed penguins, they are required to hide and remain quiet, so the birds are not startled. This ecotourism allows for increased awareness and knowledge about the penguins and helps in their conservation. Ecotourism has a positive effect on the local economy and it helps with the conservation effort. Conservation efforts are partially funded by the fees charged for such tours.

Positive Impacts: ecotourism

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Wikipedia

Yellow-eyed penguin

The yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) or hoiho is a penguin native to New Zealand. Previously thought closely related to the little penguin (Eudyptula minor), molecular research has shown it more closely related to penguins of the genus Eudyptes. Like most other penguins, it is mainly piscivorous.

The species breeds around the South Island of New Zealand, as well as Stewart, Auckland, and Campbell Islands. Colonies on the Otago Peninsula are a popular tourist venue, where visitors may closely observe penguins from hides, trenches, or tunnels.

Taxonomy[edit]

The yellow-eyed penguin is the sole extant species in the genus Megadyptes. (A smaller, recently extinct species M. waitaha was discovered in 2008.[2]) Previously thought closely related to the little penguin (Eudyptula minor), new molecular research has shown it more closely related to penguins of the genus Eudyptes. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evidence suggests it split from the ancestors of Eudyptes around 15 million years ago.[3]

The yellow-eyed penguin was described by Jacques Bernard Hombron and Honoré Jacquinot in 1841. The Maori name is hoiho.

Description[edit]

Molting yellow-eyed penguin at Oamaru, New Zealand
Yellow-eyed penguins at Curio Bay

This is a mid-sized penguin, measuring 62–79 cm (24–31 in) long (fourth largest penguin). Weights vary through the year being greatest, 5.5 to 8 kg (12–18 lbs), just before moulting and least, 3 to 6 kg (6.6–13.2 lbs), after moulting. The males are larger than the females.[4][5] It has a pale yellow head and paler yellow iris with black feather shafts. The chin and throat are brownish-black. There is a band of bright yellow running from its eyes around the back of the head. The juvenile has a greyer head with no band and their eyes have a grey iris.

The yellow-eyed penguin may be long lived, with some individuals reaching 20 years of age. Males are generally longer lived than females, leading to a sex ratio of 2:1 around the age of 10–12 years.[6]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

This penguin usually nests in forest or scrub, among native flax (Phormium tenax) and lupin (Lupinus arboreus), on slopes or gullies, or the shore itself, facing the sea. These areas are generally sited in small bays or on headland areas of larger bays.[7] It is found in New Zealand, on the south-east coast of the South Island most notably on Otago Peninsula, Foveaux Strait, Stewart Island, and sub-Antarctic islands of Auckland and Campbell Islands. It expanded its range from the sub-Antarctic islands to the main islands of New Zealand after the extinction of the Waitaha penguin several hundred years ago.

Conservation[edit]

This species of penguin is endangered, with an estimated population of 4000. It is considered one of the world's rarest penguin species. The main threats include habitat degradation and introduced predators. It may be the most ancient of all living penguins.[8]

A reserve protecting more than 10% of the mainland population was established at Long Point in the Catlins in November 2007 by the Department of Conservation and the Yellow-eyed Penguin Trust.[9][10]

In August 2010 the yellow-eyed penguin was granted protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.[11]

Health[edit]

In spring 2004, a previously undescribed disease killed off 60% of yellow-eyed penguin chicks on the Otago peninsula and in North Otago. The disease has been linked to an infection of Corynebacterium, a genus of bacteria that also causes diphtheria in humans. It has recently been described as diphtheritic stomatitis. However, it seems as if this is just a secondary infection. The primary pathogen remains unknown. A similar problem has affected the Stewart Island population.[12]

Foraging behaviour[edit]

The yellow-eyed penguin forages predominantly over the continental shelf between 2 km (1 mi) and 25 km (16 mi) offshore, diving to depths of 40 m (131 ft) to 120 m (394 ft) [13][14] Breeding penguins usually undertake two kinds of foraging trips: day trips where the birds leave at dawn and return in the evening ranging up to 25 km from their colonies, and shorter evening trips during which the birds are seldom away from their nest longer than four hours or range farther than 7 km.[14] Yellow-eyed penguins are known to be an almost exclusive benthic forager that searches for prey along the seafloor. Accordingly, up to 90% of their dives are benthic dives.[14] This also means that their average dive depths are determined by the water depths within their home ranges.[15]

Diet[edit]

Around 90% of the yellow-eyed penguin's diet is made up of fish, chiefly demersal species that live near the seafloor (e.g. blue cod (Parapercis colias), red cod (Pseudophycis bachus), opalfish (Hemerocoetes monopterygius) [16]). Other species taken are New Zealand blueback sprat (Sprattus antipodum) and cephalopods such as arrow squid (Nototodarus sloanii).

Breeding[edit]

On the shore of Enderby Island, Auckland Islands

Whether yellow-eyed penguins are colonial nesters has been an ongoing issue with zoologists in New Zealand. Most Antarctic penguin species nest in large high density aggregations of birds. For an example see the photo of nesting emperor penguin. In contrast yellow-eyed penguins do not nest within visual sight of each other. While they can be seen coming ashore in groups of four to six or more individuals then disperse along track to individual nests sites out of sight of each other. The consensus view of New Zealand penguin workers is that it is preferable to use habitat rather than colony to refer to areas where yellow-eyed penguins nest. Nest sites are selected in August and normally two eggs are laid in September. The incubation duties (lasting 39–51 days) are shared by both parents who may spend several days on the nest at a time. For the first six weeks after hatching, the chicks are guarded during the day by one parent while the other is at sea feeding. The foraging adult returns at least daily to feed the chicks and relieve the partner.

After the chicks are six weeks of age, both parents go to sea to supply food to their rapidly growing offspring. Chicks usually fledge in mid-February and are totally independent from then on. Chick fledge weights are generally between 5 and 6 kg.

First breeding occurs at three to four years of age and long term partnerships are formed.

Penguins and humans[edit]

Tourism[edit]

Several mainland habitats have hides and are relatively easily accessible for those wishing to watch the birds come ashore. These include beaches at Oamaru, Moeraki light-house, a number of beaches near Dunedin, and The Catlins. In addition, commercial tourist operations on Otago Peninsula also provide hides to view yellow-eyed penguins.

In culture[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Megadyptes antipodes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Boessenkool, Sanne; et al. (2008). "Relict or colonizer? Extinction and range expansion of penguins in southern New Zealand". Proc. R. Soc. B. 276 (1658): 815–821. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1246. PMC 2664357. PMID 19019791. 
  3. ^ Baker AJ, Pereira SL, Haddrath OP, Edge KA (2006). "Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling". Proc Biol Sci. 273 (1582): 11–17. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3260. PMC 1560011. PMID 16519228. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  4. ^ Marion, Remi, Penguins: A Worldwide Guide. Sterling Publishing Co. (1999), ISBN 0-8069-4232-0
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ Richdale, L (1957). A population study of penguins. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
  7. ^ Williams, Tony D. (1995). The Penguins. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854667-X. 
  8. ^ Other Penguin Species. Yellow-eyed Penguin Trust. Accessed 28 November 2007.
  9. ^ Gwyneth Hyndman, Land set aside for yellow-eyed penguin protection in Catlins. The Southland Times, Wednesday, 28 November 2007.
  10. ^ 12km coastal reserve declared for yellow-eyed penguins, Radio New Zealand News, 27 November 2007.
  11. ^ Five Penguins Win U.S. Endangered Species Act Protection Turtle Island Restoration Network
  12. ^ Kerrie Waterworth, Mystery illness strikes penguins, Sunday Star Times, 25 November 2007.
  13. ^ Moore, P. J. 1999: Foraging range of the yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes. Marine Ornithology 27: 49-59
  14. ^ a b c Mattern, T.; Ellenberg, U.; Houston, D.M.; Davis, L.S. 2007: Consistent foraging routes and benthic foraging behaviour in yellow-eyed penguins. Marine Ecology Progress Series 343: 295-306
  15. ^ Mattern, T.; Ellenberg, U.; Houston, D.M.; Lamare, M.; van Heezik, Y.; Seddon, P.J., Davis, L.S. 2013: The Pros and Cons of being a benthic forager: How anthropogenic alterations of the seafloor affect Yellow-eyed penguis. Keynote presentation. 8th International Penguin Conference, Bristol, UK. 2–6 September 2013. http://combine.cs.bris.ac.uk/opencms/ipc/materials/IPC8_Abstract_Book_complete.pdf
  16. ^ Moore, P.J.; Wakelin, M.D. 1997: Diet of the yellow-eyed penguin Megadyptes antipodes, South Island, New Zealand, 1991-1993. Marine Ornithology 25:17-29
  17. ^ "Rubbish and Recycling - Services". Dunedin City Council. Retrieved 14 March 2011. 
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