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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

A gregarious species, the southern rockhopper penguin breeds in large colonies that may comprise over a hundred thousand nests. Breeding pairs are monogamous, and usually return to the same nest every year. Egg-laying commences around November, with the female usually producing a clutch of two eggs of unequal size (2). Although, in general, only the chick from the larger egg survives to maturity, populations on the Falkland Islands frequently succeed in raising both (5). Incubation takes around 33 days, with both parent birds taking it in turns to sit on the eggs for extended periods of a time, whilst the other forages for food. Incubation is aided by a bare patch of skin on the lower abdomen (known as a 'brood pouch') that allows greater heat transfer to the egg. Once hatched, the male will remain to brood the chick for the first 25 days, whilst the female regularly brings food back to the nest. After this time, the chick is able to leave the nest, and will congregate with other chicks in small groups known as 'crèches' whilst the parent birds forage (2). In order to maintain its waterproof coat, the southern rockhopper penguin engages in frequent grooming, which helps to flatten the feathers and to spread a waxy substance that is secreted just below the tail. Grooming is also an important social bond between pairs. After breeding the southern rockhopper penguin forages extensively in order to build up fat reserves in preparation for its annual moult. It takes around 25 days for the penguin's coat to be fully replaced, at which point it leaves the land and spends the winter months foraging at sea, before returning to shore to breed in the following spring (2). The diet of the southern rockhopper penguin is composed of a variety of oceanic species, such as crustaceans, squid, octopus and fish (4). Groups may often feed together and dives may be to depths of up to 100 metres (2).
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Description

Previously classed as a single species, the rockhopper penguin has now been split into a northern (Eudyptes moseleyi) and southern species (Eudyptes chrysocome) (3). Although both species are similar in appearance, the distinctive yellowish plumes extending from the yellow line above the eye are significantly shorter and less dense in the southern rockhopper penguin (2) (3). The body is small but robust, with slate-grey upperparts and white underparts, the bill is short and reddish-brown and the eyes are red. Juveniles can be identified by the lack of adult yellow markings (2).
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Distribution

Range Description

Eudyptes chrysocome breeds on islands located in the South Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, ranging from 46º S in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Indian Oceans to Macquarie Island at 54ºS in the Southern Ocean. The species occurs as two subspecies. E. c. chrysocome breeds on the Falkland Islands (Malvinas), at 55 distinct breeding colonies (total of 210,418 breeding pairs in 2005), and a number of offshore islands in southern Argentina and Chile (Isla de los Estados: 173,793 pairs in 1998, Isla Pinguino: 501 pairs in 2007, Isla Ildefonso: 86,400 pairs in 2006, Diego Ramirez: 132,721 pairs in 2002, Isla Noir: 158,200 pairs in 2005, Isla Barnevelt: 10,800 pairs in 1992, Cape Horn: 600 pairs in 1992, Isla Terhalten: 1,000 pairs in 2005 and Isla Buenaventura: 500 pairs in 1992 [Shiavini et al. 2005, BirdLife International 2010]). Subspecies E. c. filholi breeds on Prince Edward: 38,000 pairs in 2008/2009 and Marion Islands: 42,000 pairs in 2008/2009 (South Africa) (Crawford et al. 2009), Crozet Islands: 152,800 pairs in 1982, Kerguelen Islands: 85,500 pairs in 1985 (French Southern Territories), Heard Island: 10,000 pairs in 1987 (Heard and McDonald Islands [to Australia]), Macquarie Island: 37,500 pairs in 2007 (Australia) and Campbell: 51,000 pairs in 1986, Auckland and Antipodes Islands (New Zealand). Other than the populations in Chile and Argentina, which may have increased (Oeler et al. 2008), all other subpopulations have undergone severe declines (Ellis et al. 1998): for example, approximately 1.5 million pairs are estimated to have been lost from Campbell Island (94% of the original total) between 1942 and 1986 (Cunningham and Moors 1994, Huin 2007), and the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) population fell by around 1.4 million pairs between 1932 and 2005 (87% of the original total) (Pütz et al. 2003). Several other sites appear to have suffered severe declines (of more than 40%) between the 1970s and the 1990s: Marion Island (Crawford et al. 2003), Antipodes Islands and Auckland Islands (Ellis et al. 1998). Population modelling, based on those breeding sites that have been accurately surveyed, indicates that over the past 37 years (three generations) the number of Southern Rockhopper Penguins has declined by 34% (BirdLife International 2010).
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Geographic Range

Rockhopper penguins are found on islands in the southern ocean, such as the Falkland Islands. They occur farther north than many other penguin species.

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native ); atlantic ocean (Native )

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Historic Range:
New Zealand - Campbell Plateau

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Range

The southern rockhopper penguin breeds on a number of Southern Ocean islands. Two subspecies are currently recognised, Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome, which is found in the Falkland Islands, Isla Pinguino, Staten Island, and islands off southern Chile and Argentina, and Eudyptes chrysocome fiholi, which is found on several subantarctic islands to the south of New Zealand and South Africa (4).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Rockhopper penguins measure about 55 centimeters in length and weigh around 2.5 kilograms. These birds stand upright on two short feet. Their legs are set far back on the body. The waterproof coat, composed of feathers that average 2.9 centimeters in length, is white on the underside and bluish-black on the top. The head has bright yellow plumage on the brow; the yellow feathers extend along the sides. The top of the head has spiked black feathers. The wings are strong, stiff, narrow and flipper-like. Rockhopper penguins have tiny eyes.

Range mass: 2000 to 3000 g.

Average length: 55 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

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Diagnostic Description

Description

Length: 66-76 cm. Plumage: adult with head, throat, back, wings, tail and undertail coverts black, breast and belly white. Yellow line above eye not meeting on forehead, but ending in long, pale yellow plumes behind each eye. Immature with a line of cream feathers above eye and replacing plumes behind eye. Bare parts: iris red; bill pink to orange-red; feet dull pink with darker webs and black soles.
  • Brown, L.H., E.K. Urban & K. Newman (1982). The Birds of Africa, Volume I. Academic Press, London.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species returns to its breeding colonies in October, which range from sea-level sites to cliff-tops, and sometimes inland. Two eggs are laid and incubated during November and December for 32-34 days. In February, the chicks fledge and depart the colony (BirdLife International 2010). At most breeding sites, only one chick is fledged by each successful pair. However, there is some evidence that it is not unusual for those in the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) to raise two chicks (Clausen and Pütz 2002). They are opportunistic feeders, preying on a variety of fish, crustaceans and cephalopods (Williams 1995).


Systems
  • Marine
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Rockhopper penguins are found in high grasses called tussocks, where they make burrows and nest. As their name implies, they live on rocky shorelines.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial ; saltwater or marine

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland

Aquatic Biomes: coastal

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Depth range based on 139 specimens in 3 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 120 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): -0.665 - 15.495
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.449 - 27.439
  Salinity (PPS): 32.635 - 35.265
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.631 - 7.723
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.362 - 1.990
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.053 - 67.369

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): -0.665 - 15.495

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.449 - 27.439

Salinity (PPS): 32.635 - 35.265

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.631 - 7.723

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.362 - 1.990

Silicate (umol/l): 1.053 - 67.369
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Nesting occurs on cliffs and rocky gullies, and chosen sites are usually situated near to freshwater, either natural springs or puddles (2).
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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Rockhopper penguins eat primarily krill (Euphausiacea). They also eat squid and other crustaceans. They make daily trips to the sea to forage.

Animal Foods: fish; aquatic crustaceans

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats non-insect arthropods)

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Breeding Category

Vagrant
  • Woehler E.J. (compiler) 2006. Species list prepared for SCAR/IUCN/BirdLife International Workshop on Antarctic Regional Seabird Populations, March 2005, Cambridge, UK.
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Communication and Perception

Their loud cry, "ecstatic vocalization", is used to announce their presence, attract a mate, or announce the boundaries of their territory. As well as vocalizing, these birds shake their heads and cause their yellow eyebrows to fly into a "halo" in order to attract a mate.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

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Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

The average lifespan of a rockhopper penguin is 10 years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
10 years.

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Reproduction

Mating calls, which are species specific, are called "ecstatic vocalization." This draws attention to the bird and announces its intentions. Penguins mate with the same partners from previous years.

Mating System: monogamous

Rockhopper penguins typically mate in the early spring or late summer, enabling the young to go to the sea in the mid-summer. They mate in vast colonies and lay up to two eggs, although sometimes pairs "adopt" a third egg. The first egg is usually 20-50% smaller than second one. The small egg is usually lost, although it is capable of maturing into a normal bird. Adopted eggs are also typically lost. After each egg is laid, it is turned over to the male who sits on it and keeps it in his brood pouch for the next four months until it hatches.

Breeding interval: Rockhopper penguins breed once yearly.

Range eggs per season: 1 to 2.

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)

While the male penguin sits on the incubating egg, he is nourished by the female, or else he fasts for the entire period. If the female does not return with food for the chick once it has hatched, the male produces "penguin's milk" from his digestive system and regurgitates it for the baby.

Parental Investment: precocial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Male); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male)

  • Williams, A. 1981. The clutch size of macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus and rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome. Emu, 81(2): 87.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Eudyptes chrysocome

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 28 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCGCCCATGCTTTCGTAATAATCTTCTTCATAGTAATACCCATCATGATCGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCCCTTATA---ATCGGCGCCCCCGACATAGCATTCCCCCGCATGAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCCCCTTCCTTCCTACTCCTACTAGCCTCCTCCACAGTAGAAGCAGGAGCTGGCACAGGATGAACTGTATATCCACCACTAGCAGGCAACCTAGCCCATGCCGGAGCATCTGTAGACTTA---GCTATTTTCTCACTCCACCTAGCAGGAGTCTCCTCCATTCTAGGAGCAATTAACTTCATCACCACCGCCATCAACATAAAACCCCCAGCCCTCTCACAGTACCAAACCCCTCTATTCGTATGATCCGTCCTTATCACAGCCGTCCTCCTACTACTCTCACTCCCCGTACTCGCTGCA---GGCATCACCATGCTACTAACAGACCGAAACTTAAACACCACCTTCTTCGACCCCGCCGGAGGAGGTGACCCAATCCTATACCAACACCTC------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eudyptes chrysocome

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 23
Specimens with Barcodes: 34
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2abcde+3bcde+4abcde

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s
Gales, R., Hilton, G., Huin, N., Kirkwood, R., Moore, P., Raya-Rey, A. & Schiavini, A.

Justification
This species has been classified as Vulnerable owing to rapid population declines, which, although they have been on-going for perhaps a century, appear to have worsened in recent years.

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Current Listing Status Summary

Status: Threatened
Date Listed: 03/24/2011
Lead Region: Foreign (Region 10) 
Where Listed: New Zealand-Australia DPS, associated with the Campbell Plateau and Macquarie Island


Population detail:

Population location: New Zealand-Australia DPS, associated with the Campbell Plateau and Macquarie Island
Listing status: T

For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Eudyptes chrysocome , see its USFWS Species Profile

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It is estimated that rockhopper penguins have undergone a decline of more than 30% in their total population size over the past 30 years. For this reason, they are classified as vulnerable by the IUCN. If the decline continues, they may be uplisted to endangered in the near future. Threats to rockhopper penguin populations include commercial fishing, which reduces the amount of available prey, and oil spills.

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable

  • Bingham, M. 2002. The decline of Falkland Islands penguins in the presence of a commercial fishing industry. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 75(4): 805-818.
  • Ryan, P., J. Cooper. 1991. Rockhopper penguins and other marine life threatened by drift net fisheries at Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean. Oryx, 25(2): 76-79.
  • BirdLife International, 2004. "Eudyptes chrysocome" (On-line). 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed November 14, 2005 at www.redlist.org.
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Status

Classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List (1).
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Population

Population
The population is estimated at just over 1.23 million pairs (Birdlife International 2010). The Falkland Islands (Malvinas), with 55 distinct breeding colonies, had a total of 210,418 breeding pairs in 2005. Isla de los Estados (Argentina) had 173,793 in 1998. In Chile, there are large colonies on Isla Diego Ramirez (132,721 pairs in 2002), Isla Noir (158,200 pairs in 2005) and Isla Ildefonso (86,400 pairs in 2006). In the Indian Ocean there are populations on the Prince Edward Islands (80,000 pairs in 2008/2009 [Crawford et al. 2009]) (South Africa), Crozet Islands (152,800 pairs in 1982), Kerguelen Islands (85,500 pairs in 1985) (French Southern Territories) and Heard Island (10,000 pairs in 1987) (Heard and McDonald Islands [to Australia]). There are also significant populations on Campbell Island (51,000 pairs in 1986) (New Zealand) and Macquarie (37,500 pairs in 2007) (Australia) (BirdLife International 2010). Several populations have experienced major long-term population crashes. Approximately 1.5 million pairs are estimated to have been lost from Campbell Island (94% of the original total) between 1942 and 1986 (Cunningham and Moors 1994), and the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) population fell by around 1.4 million pairs between 1932 and 2005 (87% of the original total) (Pütz et al. 2003). Several other sites appear to have suffered severe declines. Between 1994/1995 and 2008/2009, numbers at Marion Island decreased by about 70%, from 160,000 pairs to 42 000 pairs (Crawford et al. 2009). Population modelling, based on those breeding sites that have been accurately surveyed, indicates that over the past 37 years (three generations) the number of Southern Rockhopper Penguins has declined by 34% (BirdLife International 2010).




Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
It is not yet clear what is driving current population declines. Egg collection was common at some colonies until the 1950s, such as in the Falkland Islands (Malvinas), but is now prohibited. Penguins were taken historically as bait for use in crab pots at a number of sites, including some Chilean islands (Ryan and Cooper 1991, P. G. Ryan in litt. 1999). The disappearance of the colony on Isla Recalada in Chile indicates that human depredation, in this case the collection of zoological specimens and as bait for crab pots (Oehler et al. 2007), is still a serious threat to colonies where sites are not well protected and are accessible. The number of birds taken in recent years from other Chilean colonies is less than 500 individuals per year (BirdLife International 2010). At some sites, introduced grazing animals have caused significant vegetation loss and at Macquarie Island, overgrazing by rabbits has led to serious landslips. The effect of grazing by goats and deer at Isla de los Estados is not known and should be investigated. There are very few records of disease outbreaks, although few colonies are visited regularly. Avian cholera has caused deaths of a small number of adults and chicks at Campbell Island in 1985/86 (de Lisle et al. 1990). The massive mortality event on the Falklands in 2002/2003 was due to a Harmful Algal Bloom (Uhart et al. 2007). The number of Southern Rockhopper Penguins affected by oil pollution is currently not thought to be as great as in the past, when 40,000 Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus were estimated to be contaminated annually in Argentina (Gandini et al. 1994). In Patagonian coastal waters, hydrocarbon exploitation is a threat (Ellis et al. 1998). Other important factors include interactions with fisheries, the effects of climate change, for example in causing a drop in primary productivity that reduces prey availability or causing bottom-up food web shifts that reduce prey availability, top-down changes in food web structure leading to increased inter-specific competition and top-down changes in food web structure leading to increased secondary predation. For example, one possible ‘top-down’ effect on the eudyptid penguins is competition with (and predation by) rapidly increasing pinniped—especially fur seal—populations (Barlow et al. 2002).

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Some southern rockhopper penguin nesting colonies have recently shown dramatic falls in numbers of breeding pairs. The Falkland Islands once housed the stronghold for southern rockhopper penguins, but over the last 60 years, numbers have declined by 90% (4). The reasons for these declines range from increasing disturbance and pollution, to declining fish stocks as a result of over fishing, failure to provide no-fishing zones around penguin colonies (6) and global warming (4).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
Regular monitoring is undertaken on the Falklands, Marion, and Campbell Islands (Cuthbert and Sommer 2004, Cuthbert and Sommer in press). Several ecological and demographic studies have been undertaken (Ellis et al. 1998, Guinard et al. 1998). Marion islands with breeding colonies are reserves. Research has attempted to determine the cause of historic declines using stable isotope analysis of museum skins (G. Hilton et al. 2006). An International Species Action Plan and a series of Regional Action Plans have been developed (BirdLife International 2010).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue or start to monitor all populations, in order to assess trends (Guinard et al. 1998, BirdLife International 2010). Conduct long-term demographic studies to understand the causes of the current decline (BirdLife International 2010). Conduct research into spatial and temporal links between population trends, sea-surface temperature and primary productivity (BirdLife International 2010). Investigate the possible impact of oil exploitation (Guinard et al. 1998). Conduct studies to assess interactions with commercial fisheries (Ellis et al. 1998). Study the potential impacts of climate change. Assess the threat from introduced predators. Reduce disturbance from ecotourism through the use of codes of conduct.

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Conservation

Many islands that house breeding colonies have been designated as reserves and the populations in the Falklands, Marion, Campbell Islands are regularly monitored and studied (4). Greater investigation of population demographics and of potential threats is required. Following the starvation of over 100,000 rockhopper penguins in the Falkland Islands, the Spheniscus Penguin Conservation Work Group published a report recommending that commercial fishing be excluded within 30 miles of penguin breeding sites (2). These measures have been adopted around southern Chile and Argentina, and these sites are healthy and increasing as a result. The adjacent Falklands have refused to introduce such protection, and populations continue to decline (6).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Penguins are a tourist attraction, and they are one of the main reasons people travel to the Falkland Islands and other habitats of these penguins.

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Risks

IUCN Red List Category

Vulnerable
  • Woehler E.J. (compiler) 2006. Species list prepared for SCAR/IUCN/BirdLife International Workshop on Antarctic Regional Seabird Populations, March 2005, Cambridge, UK.
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Wikipedia

Southern rockhopper penguin

The southern rockhopper penguin group[2] (Eudyptes chrysocome), are two subspecies of rockhopper penguin, that together are sometimes considered distinct from the northern rockhopper penguin. It occurs in subantarctic waters of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans, as well as around the southern coasts of South America.

Description[edit]

This is the smallest yellow-crested, black-and-white penguin in the genus Eudyptes. It reaches a length of 45–58 cm (18–23 in) and typically weighs 2–3.4 kg (4.4–7.5 lb), although there are records of exceptionally large rockhoppers weighing 4.5 kg (9.9 lb).[3] It has slate-grey upper parts and has straight, bright yellow eyebrows ending in long yellowish plumes projecting sideways behind a red eye.[3]

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

The rockhopper penguin complex is confusing. Many taxonomists consider all three rockhopper penguin forms subspecies. Some split the northern subspecies (moseleyi) from the southern forms (chrysocome and filholi). Still others consider all three distinct. The subspecies recognized for the southern rockhopper penguin complex are:[4]

The northern rockhopper penguin lives in a different water mass than the western and eastern rockhopper penguin, separated by the Subtropical Front, and they are genetically different. Therefore, northern birds are sometimes separated as E. moseleyi. The rockhopper penguins are closely related to the macaroni penguin (E. chrysolophus) and the royal penguin (E. schlegeli), which may just be a colour morph of the macaroni penguin.

Interbreeding with the macaroni penguin has been reported at Heard and Marion Islands, with three hybrids recorded there by a 1987-88 Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition.[5]

Distribution, ecology and status[edit]

The southern rockhopper penguin group has a global population of roughly 1 million pairs. About two-thirds of the global population belongs to E. c. chrysocome which breeds on the Falkland Islands and on islands off Argentina and southern Chile.[6] These include most significantly Isla de los Estados, the Ildefonso Islands, the Diego Ramírez Islands and Isla Noir. E. c. filholi breeds on the Prince Edward Islands, the Crozet Islands, the Kerguelen Islands, Heard Island, Macquarie Island, Campbell Island, the Auckland Islands and the Antipodes Islands. Outside the breeding season, the birds can be found roaming the waters offshore their colonies.[7]

These penguins feed on krill, squid, octopus, lantern fish, mollusks, plankton, cuttlefish, and mainly crustaceans.

A rockhopper penguin, named Rocky, in Bergen Aquarium in Norway, lived to 29 years 4 months. It died in October 2003. This stands as the age record for rockhopper penguins, and possibly it was the oldest penguin known.[8]

The southern rockhopper penguin group is classified as vulnerable by the IUCN. Its population has declined by about one-third in the last thirty years.[7][9] This decline has earned them the classification of a vulnerable species by the IUCN. Threats to their population include commercial fishing and oil spills.[10]

With the approval of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA), Drusillas Park in East Sussex holds the studbook for rockhopper penguins in Europe. Zoo manager Sue Woodgate has specialist knowledge of the species, so the zoo is responsible for co-ordinating the movements of penguins within zoos in Europe to take part in breeding programmes and offer their advice and information about the species.[11]

Behaviour[edit]

E. c. chrysocome on Saunders Island, Falkland Islands hopping over a crack

Their common name refers to the fact that, unlike many other penguins which get around obstacles by sliding on their bellies or by awkward climbing using their flipper-like wings as aid, rockhoppers will try to jump over boulders and across cracks.[3]

This behaviour is by no means unique to this species however - at least the other "crested" penguins of the genus Eudyptes hop around rocks too. But the rockhopper's congeners occur on remote islands in the New Zealand region, whereas the rockhopper penguins are found in places that were visited by explorers and whalers since the Early Modern era. Hence, it is this particular species in which this behaviour was first noted.

Egg

Their breeding colonies are located from sea-level to cliff-tops and sometimes inland. Their breeding season starts in September and ends in November.[3] Two eggs are laid but only one is usually incubated.[3] Incubation lasts 35 days and their chicks are brooded for 26 days.

Rockhoppers in popular culture[edit]

Adult E. c. chrysocome in the New Island (Falkland Islands) rookery

Rockhopper penguins are the most familiar of the crested penguins to the general public. Their breeding colonies, namely those around South America, today attract many tourists who enjoy watching the birds' antics. Historically, the same islands were popular stopover and replenishing sites for whalers and other seafarers since at least the early 18th century. Almost all crested penguins depicted in movies, books and other media are ultimately based on Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome.

In film and video

In computer and video games

In music and literature

Other

  • The rockhopper penguin is the official mascot of Swiss Airforce's Pilot Class 2009 (PK 09). [12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Eudyptes chrysocome". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ English name updates - IOC Version 2.9 (July 10, 2011), IOC World Bird List
  3. ^ a b c d e Trewby, Mary (2002). Antarctica: an encyclopedia from Abbot Ice Shelf to Zooplankton. Auckland, New Zealand: Firefly Books. p. 152. ISBN 1-55297-590-8. 
  4. ^ Eudyptes chrysocome, IUCN
  5. ^ Woehler, E. J.; Gilbert, C. A. (1990). "Hybrid Rockhopper-Macaroni Penguins, interbreeding and mixed-species pairs at Heard and Marion Islands". Emu 90 (3): 198–210. doi:10.1071/MU9900198. 
  6. ^ Rockhopper Penguins, Drusillas Park
  7. ^ a b BirdLife International (2008b). [2008 IUCN Redlist status changes]. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
  8. ^ Glenday, Craig (ed.) (2008). Guinness World Records 2008. Guinness Media, Inc. ISBN 1-904994-19-9
  9. ^ BirdLife International (2008a) Southern Rockhopper Penguin Species Factsheet. Retrieved 27 May 2008.
  10. ^ Devon Phelan. "Eudyptes chrysocome rockhopper penguin". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2013-07-09. 
  11. ^ Conservation at Drusillas Park, Conservation at Drusillas Park
  12. ^ "www.lineup09.ch". www.lineup09.ch. 2011-04-24. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
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