Eudyptes sclateri breed on the Antipodes and Bounty Islands with smaller numbers observed to breed on the Auckland and Campbell Islands. While not breeding, E. sclateri inhabit the subantarctic oceans, although the exact location during non-breeding months is unknown (Houston 1998).
Biogeographic Regions: oceanic islands (Native ); arctic ocean (Native )
- Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
Eudyptes sclateri are approximately 65 cm tall and at the maximum weight, which occurs before molting, weigh about 6.5 kg. The males are generally larger. In the adult, the coloration of the head, upper throat, and cheeks are a very dark black. There is a broad yellow stripe that starts near the face, which rises over the eye to form the erect crest. The body and upper parts, along with the tail, are blue-black while the under parts are white. The dorsal side of the flipper is blue-black with a white edge, while the ventral side is white with a black patch at the tip of the flipper. The beak is long and slim with brown-orange coloring. The chicks have gray-brown upper parts and white under parts. Juveniles have a slight coloration difference from the adults but the main defining feature is the shorter crest (Williams 1995; Barham and Barham 1996).
Average mass: 6000 g.
Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry
During the winter months at sea, E. sclateri remain in the cool marine waters of the subantarctic. Their exact location has never been determined. They normally breed on the rocky Antipodes, Bounty, Campbell, and Auckland Islands in colonies that also include E. chrysocome. The islands are rocky with cliffs that provide for well-protected nests. There is very little vegetation and it normally includes short grasses and shrubs. These islands are located in the subantarctic waters south of New Zealand (Williams 1995; Barham and Barham 1996).
Terrestrial Biomes: chaparral
Aquatic Biomes: benthic ; coastal
Habitat and Ecology
Little is known about the feeding habits of E. sclateri but it is believed that the main sources of food are fish and crustaceans (Stonehouse 1975; Davis et.al. 1990).
Life History and Behavior
Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical
Eudyptes sclateri pairs breed in large colonies usually with rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome). The males usually return to the vicinity of the previous nesting site two weeks before the females return. The pre-egg stage is marked by lots of activity and fighting. The nest site is usually on flat rocky ground no higher than seventy meters above sea level. The female, who usually forms the nest cup, rotates on her breast and kicks and pushes dirt away from the cup with her feet. The male then usually rings the nest cup with rocks and mud and lines it with a little grass if it is available. Egg laying occurs in early October and lasts three to five days, during which time, the female fasts. The clutch normally contains two eggs with the second egg noticeably larger than the first. The eggs are normally a chalky pale blue or green and later become a light brown. After the second egg is laid, incubation begins and lasts for approximately thirty-five days. Usually, the first egg, which is smaller, is lost (at least ninety-eight percent of the time) and the second, larger egg is the only one to hatch. Males and females take turns incubating eggs. Two to three days after the eggs hatch, the female disappears and leaves the male to guard the nest. The guard stage lasts three to four weeks, during which period the male fasts and the female returns daily to feed the chick regurgitated food. The fledgling period, when the chicks leave the island, normally begins in February, at which point the chick enters adulthood (Richdale 1951; Stonehouse 1975; Muller-Schwarze 1984; Williams 1995).
Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eudyptes sclateri
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
Scientists have observed a population decline of at least fifty percent in the last forty-five years. This species has a restricted breeding range, which leads to conservation problems. Additionally, E. sclateri does not appear on the CITES list which indicates the penguin is not being hunted or used in trading by humans.
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: no special status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Date Listed: 09/02/2010
Lead Region: Foreign (Region 10)
Where Listed: Entire
Population location: Entire
Listing status: T
For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Eudyptes sclateri , see its USFWS Species Profile
Cattle and sheep were eradicated from Campbell Island by 1984 and 1992 respectively (Taylor 2000). Introduced brown rats Rattus norvegicus have been successfully removed from Campbell Island, although their effect on the colony was never studied (Taylor 2000). All islands are nature reserves and part of a World Heritage Site designated in 1998. Conservation Actions Proposed
Census a sample of Antipodes Island colonies every five years, and re-photograph photopoints from 1978 and 1995 expeditions. Census Proclamation Island (Bounty Islands) every five years. Compare aerial and ground surveys of the Bounty Islands to ascertain the viability of using the former method for monitoring colonies (Taylor 2000). Conduct detailed studies to determine foraging ranges, commercial fisheries competition, and oceanographic or climatic changes (Ellis et al. 1998).
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Eudyptes sclateri are of little economic importance. They are not caught for food or used in any other way by humans (Stonehouse 1975).
This is a small-to-medium-sized, yellow-crested, black-and-white penguin, at 50–70 cm (20–28 in) and weighing 2.5–6 kg (5.5–13.2 lb). As in all penguin species, the male is slightly larger than the female and the birds weigh the most prior to moulting. It has bluish-black to jet black upperparts and white underparts, and a broad, bright yellow eyebrow-stripe which extends over the eye to form a short, erect crest.
Its biology is poorly studied and only little information about the species has emerged in the past decades. Erect-crested penguins nest in large colonies on rocky terrain. It presumably feeds on mainly krill and squid like other crested penguin species.
This species is threatened by population decline, and a small breeding range restricted to two locations. The current population is estimated at 130,000 to 140,000. In addition to being listed as an endangered species on the IUCN Red List, the erect-crested penguin is listed as endangered and granted protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.
The mascot character of the anime Neon Genesis Evangelion is an erect-crested penguin named Pen Pen.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Eudyptes sclateri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
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- Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael (2003). Whose Bird? Men and Women Commemorated in the Common Names of Birds. London: Christopher Helm. p. 304.
- Five Penguins Win U.S. Endangered Species Act Protection Turtle Island Restoration Network
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