The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2011. Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource, 2011.02.08
  • 2011. IOC World Bird List, Master List v2.9
  • Araya BM & G Millie. 1991. Guía de campo de las aves de Chile. 4ta ed. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago. 405 p.
  • Aubin, T., P. Jouventin, C. Hildebrand. 2000. Penguins use the two-voice system to recognize each other. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 267: 1081-1087.
  • Aubin, T., P. Jouventin. 1998. Cocktail-party effect in king penguin colonies. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 265: 1665-1673.
  • Baxter, W. 1974. People or Penguins: The Case for Optimal Pollution. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • BirdLife International 2012. Aptenodytes patagonicus
  • Bried, J., F. Jiguet, P. Jouventin. 1999. Why do Aptenodytes penguins have high divorce rates?. The Auk, 116: 504-512.
  • Charbonnier, Y., K. Delord, J. Thiebot. 2009. King-size fast food for Antartic fur seals. Polar Biology, 33: 721-724.
  • Cote, S. 2000. Aggressiveness in king penguins in relation to reproductive status and territory location. Animal Behaviour, 59: 813-821.
  • Dobson, F., P. Jouventin. 2003. Use of the nest site as a rendezvous in penguins. Waterbirds: The International Journal of Waterbird Biology, 26: 409-415.
  • Emslie, S., N. Karnovsky, W. Trivelpiece. 1995. Avian predation at penguin colonies on King George Island, Antarctica. The Wilson Bulletin, 107: 317-327.
  • Flower (1938) Furter notes on the duration of life in animals. IV. Birds. Proc Zool Soc London, Ser. A:195–235.
  • Flower, 1938. Furter notes on the duration of life in animals. IV. Birds. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, Ser. A: 195-235.
  • Gauthier-Clerc, M., Y. Clerquin, Y. Handrich. 1998. Hyperinfestation by ticks Ixodes uriae: a possible cause of death in adult king penguins, a long-lived seabird. Colonial Waterbirds, 21: 229-233.
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. ix + 259
  • Jouventin, P., P. Nolan, J. Ornborg, F. Dobson. 2005. Ultraviolet beak spots in king and emperor penguins. The Condor, 107: 144-150.
  • Jouventin, P., T. Aubin, T. Lengagne. 1999. Finding a parent in a king penguin colony: the acoustic system of individual recognition. Animal Behavior, 57: 1175-1183.
  • Kooyman, G., Y. Cherel, Y. Le Maho, J. Croxall, P. Thorson, V. Ridoux, C. Kooyman. 1992. Diving behavior and energetics during foraging cycles in king penguins. Ecological Monographs, 62: 143-163.
  • Kooyman, G.L., R. W. Davis, J. P. Croxall, and D. P. Costa. 1982. Diving depths and energy requirements of king penguins. Science 271:726-727.
  • Le Bohec, C., J. M. Durant, M. Gauthier-Clerc, N. C. Stenseth, Y.-H. Park, R. Pradel, D. Grémillet, J.-P. Gendner, and Y. Le Maho. 2008. King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming. Proceedings of the The National Academy of Sciences (USA) 105(7):2493-2497.
  • Lockley, R. 1984. Seabirds of the World. New York, NY: Facts on File.
  • McGonigal, D., L. Woodworth. 2001. Antarctica and the Arctic: The Complete Encyclopedia. Ontario: Firefly Books.
  • Nelson, B. 1979. Seabirds, Their Biology and Ecology. New York, NY: A & W Publishers Inc..
  • Nicolaus, M., C. Le Bohec, P. Nolan, M. Gauthier-Clerc, Y. Le Maho, J. Komdeur, P. Jouventin. 2007. Ornamental colors reveal age in the king penguin. Polar Biology, 31: 53-61.
  • Nolan, P., F. Dobson, M. Nicolaus, T. Karels, K. McGraw, P. Jouventin. 2010. Mutual mate choice for colorful traits in king penguins. Ethology, 116: 635-644.
  • Olsson, O. 1996. Seasonal effects of timing and reproduction in the king penguin: a unique breeding cycle. Journal of Avian Biology, 27: 7-14.
  • Olsson, O. 1997. Clutch abandonment: a state-dependent decision in king penguins. Journal of Avian Biology, 28: 264-267.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Otley, H. 2005. Nature-based tourism: Experiences at the volunteer point penguin colony in the Falkland Islands. Marine Ornithology, 33: 181-187.
  • Parmelee, D. 1992. Antarctic Birds: Ecological and Behavioral Approaches. Minneapolis: University of Minnnesota Press.
  • Putz, K., C. Bost. 1994. Feeding behavior of free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Ecology, 75: 489-497.
  • Raymond B, Shaffer SA, Sokolov S, Woehler EJ, Costa DP, et al. 2010. Shearwater Foraging in the Southern Ocean: The Roles of Prey Availability and Winds. PLoS ONE 5(6): e10960. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010960
  • Richdale, L. 1951. Sexual Behavior in Penguins. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.
  • Shirihai, H. 2008. The Complete Guide to Antarctic Wildlife: Birds and Marine Mammals of the Antarctic Continent and the Southern Ocean. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Viera, V., P. Nolan, S. Cote, P. Jouventin, R. Groscolas. 2007. Is territory defence related to plumage ornaments in the king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus?. Ethology, 114: 146-153.
  • de Villiers, M., P. de Bruyn. 2004. Stone-swallowing by three species of penguins at sub-antarctic Marion Island. Marine Ornithology, 32: 185-186.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!