The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2011. AOU Check-List (08-2011)
  • 2011. IOC World Bird List, Master List v2.9
  • 2011. Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource, 2011.04.02
  • Adriaens, P. (2015). Larus philadelphia. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • BirdLife International 2012. Larus philadelphia
  • Burger, J., M. Gochfeld. 2002. Bonaparte's gull (Larus philadelphia). Pp. 1-24 in A Poole, F Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 634. Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America, Inc.
  • Burger, Joanna and Michael Gochfeld. 2002. Bonaparte's Gull (Chroicocephalus philadelphia), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online:
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from
  • Miklos, D. 1994. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, inc..
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Peterson, R. 1980. A field guide to the birds. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Pough, R. 1953. All the Birds of Eastern and Central North America. New York: Doubleday & Company,inc..
  • Reed, C. 1915. The Bird Book. New York: Doubleday, page & Company.
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Center, 2001. "Threatened and Endangered Species: Larus philadelphia" (On-line). Accessed 2 March 2001 at


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