The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary (January2004) External link.
  • 2. Mullarney, K., Svensson, L., Zetterström, D. & Grant, P.J. (1999) Collins Bird Guide. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, London.
  • 2011. AOU Check-List (08-2011)
  • 2011. Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource, 2011.04.02
  • 2011. IOC World Bird List, Master List v2.9
  • 3. RSPB A-Z of Birds: black-headed gull (February 2004) External link.
  • 4. JNCC Special Protection Areas for the black-headed gull (February 2004) External link.
  • 5. Lack, P. (1986) The Atlas of Wintering Birds in Britain and Ireland. T. & A. D. Poyser Ltd, Calton.
  • 6. Peterson, R.T., Mountfort, G. & Hollom, P.A.D. (1993) Collins Field Guide- Birds of Britain and Europe. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, London.
  • 7. Holden, P. & Sharrock, J.T.R. (2002) The RSPB Guide to British Birds. Pan Macmillan, London.
  • Adriaens, P. (2015). Larus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Anonyme (à paraître). Cahiers d'habitats Natura 2000. Cahiers Oiseaux - Bibliographie générale, 4 pages - (version provisoire de 2008), Ministère en charge de l'écologie - MNHN.
  • Anonyme (à paraître). Cahiers d'habitats Natura 2000. Connaissance et gestion des habitats et des espèces d'intérêt communautaire. Cahiers Oiseaux (version provisoire de 2008), Ministère en charge de l'écologie - MNHN.
  • B., Bruun., & S. Baha El Din.   (1985).  Common Birds of Egypt, The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo..  
  • BirdLife International 2012. Larus ridibundus
  • Buturlin, Unknown,Orn.Mitt., 19112: 68.
  • Cantos, F., A. Alonso-Gomez, M. Delgado. 1994. Seasonal changes in fat and protein reserves of the black-headed gull, Larus ridibundus, in relation to migration. Comparative Biochemical Physiology, Vol. 108A, No. 1: 117-122.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from
  • Gill, F. 1995. Ornithology. Second edition.. W.H. Freeman and Company.
  • Groothuis, T., L. Van Mulekom. 1991. The influence of social experience on the ontogenetic change in the relation between aggression, fear and display behaviour in black-headed gulls. Animal Behaviour, 42: 873-881.
  • Hall SJ, Raffaelli D (1991) Food-web patterns: lessons from a species-rich web. J Anim Ecol 60:823–842
  • Howard, R., A. Moore. 1991. A Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Second edition.. London, San Diego: Academic Press.
  • Huxham M, Beany S, Raffaelli D (1996) Do parasites reduce the chances of triangulation in a real food web? Oikos 76:284–300
  • INPN 2003-2014. Fiche descriptive de : Chroicocephalus ridibundus (Linnaeus, 1766), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. Service du Patrimoine naturel.
  • John Terres (1980) The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Knopf: New York.
  • Kruuk, H. 1964. Predators and Anti-Predators of the Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus L.). Leiden, The Netherlands: E.J. Brill.
  • Larus ridibundus L.
  • Linnaeus, C. (1766). Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae. 12th ed. v. 1 (pt 1): 1-532.
  • Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12,Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 17661: 225.
  • Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12,Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 17661: 225.
  • Middendorff, Unknow,Reise Nord.Ost.Sibir., 18532(2): 244.
  • Moynihan, M. 1955. Some Aspects of Reproductive Behavior in the Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus L.)and Related Species. Leiden, The Netherlands: E.J. Brill.
  • Nuyets, E., A. Buit, E. Van der Zee. 1996. The influence of age on the acquirement of a perch in the black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus L.): new data and a review of the literature. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 74: 1713-1720.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Prevot-Julliard, A., R. Pradel, J. Lebreton, F. Cezilly. 1998. Evidence for birth-site tenacity in breeding Common Black-headed Gulls, Larus ridibundus. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 76: 2295-2298.
  • Stienen, E., A. Brenninkmeijer. 1999. Keep the chicks moving: how Sandwich terns can minimize kleptoparasitism by black-headed gulls. Animal Behaviour, 57: 1135-1144.
  • TOURENNE Murielle, COROLLA Jean-Pierre, BEAUVERGER Laetitia, FEY Laurent, in : DORIS, 3/9/2012 : Larus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766,
  • Urban, E.K., C.H. Fry & S. Keith (1986). The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.
  • Wang Qishan, Ma Ming and Gao Yuren, FAUNA SINICA AVES Vol. 5: Gruiformes, Charadriiformes and Lariformes.,FAUNA SINICA AVES Vol. 5: Gruiformes, Charadriiformes and Lariformes., 2006.
  • Zheng Zuoxin, BIRDS OF THE WORLD(Latin, Chinese and English names),BIRDS OF THE WORLD(Latin, Chinese and English names), 1989.
  • 王岐山.马鸣.高育仁, 中国动物志.鸟纲第五卷.鹤形目.鸻形目.鸥形目,中国动物志.鸟纲第五卷.鹤形目.鸻形目.鸥形目, 2006.
  • 王岐山.马鸣.高育仁, 中国动物志.鸟纲第五卷.鹤形目.鸻形目.鸥形目,中国动物志.鸟纲第五卷.鹤形目.鸻形目.鸥形目, 2006.
  • 郑作新, 世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照),世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照), 1989.


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