occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Breeding
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: (200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: northeastern Siberia, northwestern and northern Alaska, northern Yukon, and northwestern Mackenzie, east to Franklin Bay, Northwest Territories. WINTERS: from central California, southern Arizona, southern New Mexico, central Texas, Gulf Coast, and southern Florida south to Guatemala, rarely to Costa Rica, casually to Panama; occasionally in Hawaii.
- North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
- Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
Length: 29 cm
Weight: 109 grams
Habitat and Ecology
Comments: Nonbreeding: marshes, shores of ponds and lakes, mudflats and flooded fields, primarily in freshwater situations (AOU 1983). Nests on the ground in tundra and wet meadows, usually in marshes or grassy areas with scattered shrubs and trees near open fresh water.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.
Depth range (m): 0 - 0
Temperature range (°C): 16.316 - 16.316
Nitrate (umol/L): 0.240 - 0.240
Salinity (PPS): 33.496 - 33.496
Oxygen (ml/l): 5.685 - 5.685
Phosphate (umol/l): 0.330 - 0.330
Silicate (umol/l): 1.436 - 1.436
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Migrates primarily through western North America west of Rockies, less frequently (primarily in fall) east of Rockies (AOU 1983). Migrates northward to breeding areas, arriving late May-early June in northern Alaska. Southward migration usually begins in late July or early August, greatest numbers in August-September; juveniles begin migration after mid-August, rare before mid-September (Hayman et al. 1986). Rare but regular migrant in Hawaii.
Comments: Forages shallow fresh water and mud bars, probing into mud with bill. Feeds on insects and their larvae, mollusks, crustaceans, marine worms, spiders, and seeds of aquatic plants (bulrushes, pondweeds, sedges, etc.).
100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Comments: Morrison et al. (2001) estimated the total population to be roughly 500,000 with about 200,000 spring migrants moving through western North America, 290,800 moving through central and Interior Flyway sites, and 3100 through the eastern U.S.
Little information on home range; in Siberia, nesting pairs remained in an area about 100-300 meters in diameter (Johnsgard 1981).
Life History and Behavior
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Breeding begins in late May or early June (Harrison 1978); early nestings in northern Alaska in the first half of June. Clutch size is 4. At first both sexes take turns incubating the eggs; later only the male is involved. Incubation appears to last for 20 days. Precocial young are tended by male.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Limnodromus scolopaceus
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Limnodromus scolopaceus
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N3B - Vulnerable
Rounded National Status Rank: N5B,N5N : N5B: Secure - Breeding, N5N: Secure - Nonbreeding
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure
Adults have yellowish legs and a long straight dark bill. The body is dark brown on top and reddish underneath with spotted throat and breast, bars on flanks. The tail has a black and white barred pattern. The winter plumage of both an adult and a juvenile is largely grey.
These birds forage by probing in shallow water or on wet mud. They mainly eat insects, mollusks, crustaceans and marine worms, but also eat some plant material.
They are more likely to be seen near fresh water than the short-billed dowitcher.
Names and Taxonomy
Comments: See Avise and Zink (1988) for information on genetic divergence between L. SCOLOPACEUS and L. GRISEUS.