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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

The Medium-billed prion is found breeding at the Prince Edward Islands (South Africa), Crozet Islands, Amsterdam Islands and St Paul Island (French Southern Territories). It ranges at sea from South Africa east to New Zealand1.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This marine species normally occurs offshore, and can be found in areas of upwelling outside the breeding season. Its diet is comprised mostly of crustaceans, especially krill, but also fish and squid, all of which it catches either by hydroplaning, surface-seizing or filtering. Breeding starts in October in huge colonies up to and above one million individuals strong. It nests in burrows, usually on islands, inland on highland plateaux or on slopes with grass or shrubs. It can also be found in caves or crevices (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 180 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 180 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): -0.372 - 10.709
  Nitrate (umol/L): 9.472 - 27.100
  Salinity (PPS): 33.739 - 34.234
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.384 - 7.981
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.939 - 1.896
  Silicate (umol/l): 5.723 - 34.323

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): -0.372 - 10.709

Nitrate (umol/L): 9.472 - 27.100

Salinity (PPS): 33.739 - 34.234

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.384 - 7.981

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.939 - 1.896

Silicate (umol/l): 5.723 - 34.323
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachyptila salvini

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to exceed 12,000,000 individuals.

Population Trend
Stable
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Wikipedia

Salvin's Prion

Salvin's prion, Pachyptila salvini, also known as medium-billed prion, is a species of seabird in the petrel family Procellariidae.

Taxonomy[edit]

Salvin's prion is a member of the Pachyptila genus, and along with the blue petrel, they make up the prions. They in turn are members of the Procellariidae family, and the Procellariiformes order. The prions are small and typically eat just zooplankton;[2] however as a member of the Procellariiformes, they share certain identifying features. First, they have nasal passages that attach to the upper bill called naricorns. Although the nostrils on the prion are on top of the upper bill. The bills of Procellariiformes are also unique in that they are split into between 7 and 9 horny plates. They produce a stomach oil made up of wax esters and triglycerides that is stored in the proventriculus. This is used against predators as well as an energy rich food source for chicks and for the adults during their long flights.[3] Finally, they also have a salt gland that is situated above the nasal passage and helps desalinate their bodies, due to the high amount of ocean water that they imbibe. It excretes a high saline solution from their nose.[4]

Subspecies[edit]

Salvin's prion has two subspecies:

Etymology[edit]

The name Pachyptila comes from the Greek words pakhus and ptilon. Pakhus means "thick" or "stout" and ptilon means "a feather". Also from the Greek language, prion comes from the word priōn meaning "a saw", which is in reference to its serrated edges of its bill.[6] The species is named for the British ornithologist Osbert Salvin.

Description[edit]

Salvin's prion is a small 29 cm (11 in) petrel with grey and white plumage,[citation needed] and a blue bill.[7] Like the broad-billed prion it has lamellae in its bill in order to filter seawater for food.[citation needed]

Behaviour[edit]

Breeding[edit]

This small prion breeds colonially on a number of subantarctic islands in the southern Indian Ocean. The colonies of medium-billed prions are attended nocturnally in order to avoid predation by skuas. The nests are concealed in burrows usually dug into soil. Nests are attended regularly for several months prior to breeding. A single egg is laid in November or early December, which is incubated for around 50 days. Both parents share the incubation duties and feed the chick once it is hatched. The chicks fledge around 60 days after hatching.[citation needed]

Feeding[edit]

The main components of its diet are amphipods and krill, although it will also take fish and squid. In addition to filter feeding food is obtained by seizing and hydroplaning.[2]

Range and habitat[edit]

Salvin's prion breeds principally on Île aux Cochons in the Crozet Islands, where four million pairs are thought to breed.[citation needed] Other breeding colonies include Prince Edward Island, St Paul Island and Amsterdam Island. At sea they range from South Africa eastwards to New Zealand.[5]

Conservation[edit]

Salvin's prion is not considered threatened. Although numbers have declined on some islands where rats and feral cats have been introduced,[citation needed] the world population is estimated at around 12 million birds. Consequently, they are given a classification of Least Concern.[1][8]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Pachyptila salvini". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Maynard, B. J. (2003)
  3. ^ Double, M. C. (2003)
  4. ^ Ehrlich, Paul R. (1988)
  5. ^ a b c Clements, James (2007)
  6. ^ Gotch, A. T. (1995)
  7. ^ ZipCode Zoo (19 Jun 2009)
  8. ^ BirdLife International (2009)

References[edit]

  • BirdLife International (2009). "Medium-billed Prion - BirdLife Species Factsheet". Data Zone. Retrieved 17 Jul 2009. 
  • Brooke, M. (2004). "Procellariidae". Albatrosses And Petrels Across The World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850125-0. 
  • Clements, James (2007). The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World (6 ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4501-9. 
  • Double, M. C. (2003). "Procellariiformes (Tubenosed Seabirds)". In Hutchins, Michael; Jackson, Jerome A.; Bock, Walter J. et al. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8 Birds I Tinamous and Ratites to Hoatzins. Joseph E. Trumpey, Chief Scientific Illustrator (2 ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. pp. 107–111. ISBN 0-7876-5784-0. 
  • Ehrlich, Paul R.; Dobkin, David, S.; Wheye, Darryl (1988). The Birders Handbook (First ed.). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. pp. 29–31. ISBN 0-671-65989-8. 
  • Gotch, A. F. (1995) [1979]. "Albatrosses, Fulmars, Shearwaters, and Petrels". Latin Names Explained A Guide to the Scientific Classifications of Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. New York, NY: Facts on File. p. 192. ISBN 0-8160-3377-3. 
  • Maynard, B. J. (2003). "Shearwaters, petrels, and fulmars (Procellariidae)". In Hutchins, Michael; Jackson, Jerome A.; Bock, Walter J. et al. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8 Birds I Tinamous and Ratites to Hoatzins. Joseph E. Trumpey, Chief Scientific Illustrator (2 ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. pp. 123–133. ISBN 0-7876-5784-0. 
  • ZipCode Zoo (19 Jun 2009). "Pachyptila salvini (Medium-Billed Prion)". BayScience Foundation. Retrieved 26 Jul 2009. 
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