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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Southern giant petrels are largely scavengers, and feed mainly on seal and penguin carcasses, offal, refuse from ships and discarded fish (2) (5). They often feed close to trawlers and vessels fishing with longlines (2). They also prey upon penguins and other birds, krill and amphipod crustaceans, fish and squid. During chick rearing, they depend heavily on penguins and seal colonies, as a food resource (5). During the breeding season, loose colonies form at the breeding sites (2). During October or November, pairs lay a single large egg into a low cup-shaped nest made of grass, moss and gravel. The eggs are incubated for 55 to 66 days (6). The chick remains in the nest until it fledges towards the end of March. Giant petrels are very susceptible to disturbance during the breeding season, and tend to abandon the nest if they are threatened (4). Petrels are able to regurgitate foul-smelling oil which they spit at intruders; this habit earned the southern giant petrel the alternative name of 'stinker' (7). After fledging, juvenile birds spend their first two or three years of life at sea on an extensive migration, in which they circumnavigate the Southern Ocean. Although this species may begin to breed at four years, most individuals begin to breed between six and ten years of age (5).
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Description

The southern giant petrel is, as the name suggests, a very large bird, with impressive long, pointed wings and a huge bill (2). Like all species of petrel, this bird has tubular nostrils that are united at the top. There are two colour forms of this species: a rare white form that is flecked with black and a dark form with mottled greyish-brown feathers with a paler belly. In this dark form, the head, neck and upper area of the breast whitens with age (2). The sexes are similar and juveniles are sooty-black in colour (2) (4). All age groups have a large yellowish bill with a green tip, capable of opening intact carcasses (2) (3). This petrel is of a similar size to albatrosses, but it can be distinguished by its large bill, narrower shorter wings and a general humpbacked form (2).
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Distribution

Range Description

Macronectes giganteus breeds on the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Staten Island and islands off Chubut Province (Argentina), South Georgia (Georgias del Sur), the South Orkney (Orcadas del Sur) and South Shetland Islands (Shetland del Sur), islands near the Antarctic Continent and Peninsula, Prince Edward Islands (South Africa), Crozet Islands (French Southern Territories), Heard Island and Macquarie Island (Australia), with smaller populations on Gough Island, Tristan da Cunha (St Helena to UK), Diego Ramirez and Isla Noir (Chile), Kerguelen Islands (French Southern Territories), and four localities on the Antarctic Continent including Terre Adélie. In the 1980s, the population was estimated at 38,000 pairs (Hunter 1985), declining by 18% to 31,000 pairs in the late 1990s (Rootes 1988). Populations at Heard and Macquarie declined 50% between the 1960s and late 1980s (Woehler 1991, Woehler 2006). Many Antarctic Peninsula populations decreased to the mid-1980s (e.g. >50% at Signy, South Orkneys) (Patterson et al. undated). The population at Terre Adélie declined from c.80 pairs in the 1960s to 10-15 pairs in 2000. However, recent data indicate a number of populations have stabilised or increased, e.g. Possession Island (Crozet) (Patterson et al. undated), Gough Island (Cuthbert and Sommer in litt 2004)and Heard Island (Woehler 2006). A comprehensive 2004-2005 survey of all breeding colonies on the Falkland Islands recorded 19,523 breeding pairs (Reid and Huin 2005). This represents a dramatic increase over the previous estimate of 5,000-10,000 pairs in the Falkland Islands, and is thought to represent a combination of improved knowledge and a genuine population increase. Similarly, a comprehensive survey of all known breeding sites in the South Georgia archipelago, between 2005 and 2006, indicates a population increase since the 1980s (Poncet et al. in litt. 2008), and the global population is now estimated at c.54,000 breeding pairs (Chown et al. unpubl. report 2008). Data from birds tracked from South Georgia indicate that breeders remain in the same ocean sector during the nonbreeding season (Hunter and Brooke 1982). By comparison, ringing recoveries suggest that juveniles disperse much more widely (Hunter 1984b). Males and females have distinct foraging ranges during the breeding season (Gonzalez-Solis and Croxall 2005).

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Range

Circumpolar southern oceans south to the pack ice.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Range

Southern giant petrels are circumpolar in distribution. The breeding colonies are found from the sub-Antarctic islands south to the Antarctic continent (5).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It typically nests in loose colonies on grassy or bare ground. However, in the Falkland Islands it can nest in large, relatively dense colonies (Reid and Huin 2005). Average age of first breeding is c.10 years, and mean adult annual survival at South Georgia is 90% (Hunter 1984a). It feeds on carrion, cephalopods, krill, offal, discarded fish and refuse from ships, often feeding near trawlers and longliners (Hunter and Brooke 1982, Hunter 1983). Males and females exhibit clearly defined spatial segregation in their foraging ranges (Gonzalez-Solis et al. 2000, Quintana and Dell' Arciprete 2002, BirdLife International 2004).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 1153 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 831 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): -1.542 - 17.523
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.449 - 30.651
  Salinity (PPS): 33.169 - 35.515
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.518 - 8.188
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.357 - 2.109
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.053 - 89.471

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): -1.542 - 17.523

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.449 - 30.651

Salinity (PPS): 33.169 - 35.515

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.518 - 8.188

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.357 - 2.109

Silicate (umol/l): 1.053 - 89.471
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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This petrel is pelagic and nests in colonies on islands. Breeding colonies are found on bare or grassy ground (2), often close to penguin colonies (5).
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Breeding Category

Breeding
  • Woehler E.J. (compiler) 2006. Species list prepared for SCAR/IUCN/BirdLife International Workshop on Antarctic Regional Seabird Populations, March 2005, Cambridge, UK.
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Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 13.5 years (wild) Observations: Little is known about the longevity of these animals. Maximum longevity from banding studies is 13.5 years (http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/BBL/homepage/longvrec.htm), but possibly they can live significantly longer.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Macronectes giganteus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNGTCGGAACTGCCCTCNGCCTANTTATTCGTGCAGAACTTGGTCNACCAGGANCCCTCTTAGGAGATGACCAAATCTATAATGTAATCGTNNNNGCCCATGCTTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTCATAGTGATACCAGTCATAATTGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCCCTCATAATCGGCGCGCCCGACNTGGCATTCCCTNGTATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTGCCCCCATCCTTCCTTCTCTTATTAGCCTCATCCACGGTAGAAGCAGGAGCAGGAACAGGATGAACTGTCTACCCCCCTCTAGCTGGTAACCTAGCTCATGCTGGAGCCTCAGTCGACCTAGCTATCTTCTCCCTCCACCTAGCTGGTGTATCCTCCATCTTAGGGGCCATCAACTTCATCACAACAGCCATCAACATAAAACCCCCAGCCCTCTCACAATACCAAACCCCTTTATTCGTATGGTCCGTCCTTATCACTGCCGTCCTACTCTTACTTTCACTTCCAATTTTAGCTGCAGGAATCACCATGCTACTAACAGACCGAAACCTAAACACCACATTCTTCGATCCAGCCGGCGGAGGAGACCCAGTCTTATACCAACATCTCTTCTGATTTTTCGGCCACCCNNAANTCTATATCCTAATCCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Macronectes giganteus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s
Deliry, C., Ryan, P.G., Fraser, W., Cooper, J., Hilton, G., Patterson-Fraser, D., Phillips, R., Bretagnolle, V., Keys, H., Pistorius, P. & Croxall, J.

Justification
Recent analysis of trend data for the global population over the past three generations (64 years) gives a best case estimate of a 17 % increase and a worst case scenario of a 7.2 % decline (Chown et al 2008 unpubl.report to SCAR); declines consequently do not approach the threshold for classification as Vulnerable and the species has been downlisted from Near Threatened to Least Concern.

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Status

Classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (2). Listed under Appendix II of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) (2).
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Population

Population
A total of 46,800 pairs and approaching 100,000 mature individuals (roughly equating to 150,000 total individuals) can be estimated from Patterson et al. (in press) and unpublished data from Falklands Conservation and British Antarctic Survey. This consists of an estimated 19,500 pairs on the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), 5,500 pairs on South Georgia (Georgias del Sur), 5,400 pairs on South Shetland Islands (Shetland del Sur), 3,350 pairs on South Orkney Island (Orcadas del Sur) (British Antarctic Survey unpubl. data), 2,500 pairs on Heard and MacDonald Islands (DPIW unpubl. data), 2,145 pairs on Macquarie Island, 2,300 pairs in South America, 2,300 pairs on the Tristan da Cunha Islands, 280 pairs on the Antarctic Continent. In addition, Patterson et al. (in litt. undated) estimate 1,190 pairs on the Antarctic Peninsula, 1,550 pairs on the South Sandwich Islands, 1,800 pairs on Prince Edward Islands, 1,060 pairs on Iles Crozet and four pairs in Iles Kerguelen.

Population Trend
Increasing
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Threats

Major Threats
A total of 2,000-4,000 giant-petrels were estimated killed in illegal or unregulated Southern Ocean longline fisheries for Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides in 1997-1998 (CCAMLR 1997, CCAMLR 1998) and the species has been shown to be killed in trawl fisheries in the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) (Sullivan et al. 2006). However, improved mitigation in many longline fisheries appears to have reduced bycatch levels of this species around some breeding colonies (Quintana et al. 2006). Localised decreases have also been attributed to reductions in southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina (an important source of carrion), human disturbance and persecution (Hunter 1984a, P. G. Ryan in litt. 1999, Pfeiffer and Peters 2006).

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Between 1997 and 1998, an estimated 2,000 to 4,000 southern giant petrels were killed in illegal and unregulated longline fisheries for Patagonian toothfish in the Southern Ocean (2). Other threats include a decline in the population of the southern elephant seal Mirounga leonine (an important source of carrion for the petrel), increasing disturbance by humans and persecution (2).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II and ACAP Annex 1. It is monitored at South Georgia, Marion, Crozet and Macquarie Islands, and at Terre Adélie. Several breeding islands are nature reserves; Gough and Macquarie are World Heritage Sites. The population at Gough Island was censused in 2000-2001, and again in 2003, and a monitoring protocol has been devised (Cuthbert and Sommer 2004).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue monitoring. Conduct surveys of major breeding sites. Minimise disturbance at breeding sites. Research movements and migration. Promote adoption of best-practice mitigation measures in all fisheries within its range, particularly via existing and proposed intergovernmental mechanisms under auspices of CCAMLR, CMS and FAO.

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Conservation

The southern giant petrel is listed under Appendix II of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS). Monitoring programmes are underway at several locations and a number of its breeding colonies occur within nature reserves and World Heritage Sites. Proposed measures include continued monitoring, surveys of all of the major breeding sites and minimisation of disturbance at the breeding colonies. Furthermore, it has been suggested that all fisheries operating within the range of this species should adopt best-practice guidelines to minimise the risk of accidental by-catch of this petrel (2). As a result of this mitigation, populations of this magnificent bird around the world are now slowly increasing (8), and its IUCN Red List status has been amended to Least Concern (2).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

IUCN Red List Category

Vulnerable
  • Woehler E.J. (compiler) 2006. Species list prepared for SCAR/IUCN/BirdLife International Workshop on Antarctic Regional Seabird Populations, March 2005, Cambridge, UK.
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Wikipedia

Southern giant petrel

The southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus), also known as the Antarctic giant petrel, giant fulmar, stinker, and stinkpot, is a large seabird of the southern oceans. Its distribution overlaps broadly with the similar northern giant petrel, though it overall is centered slightly further south. Adults of the two species can be separated by the colour of their bill-tip: greenish in the southern and reddish in the northern.

Taxonomy[edit]

The southern giant petrel is one of two members of the genus Macronectes, which in turn, along with 14 other genera, comprise the Procellariidae family. Macronectes, also referred to as the giant petrels, along with the genus Fulmarus, Cape petrel, Antarctic petrel, and the snow petrel form a sub-family within the larger family.

The southern giant petrel was first described as Macronectes giganteus by Johann Friedrich Gmelin, in 1789, based on a specimen from Staten Island off Tierra del Fuego.[3]

Etymology[edit]

Macronectes giganteus can be broken down as makros a Greek word meaning "long" or "large" and nēktēs meaning "swimmer", and giganteus from the Latin for "gigantic". Southern giant petrel starts with southern referring to their habitat being further south than their counterpart the northern giant petrel, and petrel refers to St. Peter and from the story of him walking on water, which refers to how they run on top of the water as they are getting airborne. They were also called fulmar, which comes from full an Old Norse word meaning "foul", and mar meaning "gull". They resemble seagulls and they have the ability of spitting a foul smelling concoction at predators.[4]

Description[edit]

Flying over East Falkland

This and it sister species are the largest members of the Procellariidae. The southern giant petrel measures 86–99 cm (34–39 in) with a wingspan of 185–205 cm (73–81 in). Both this and the northern giant petrel vary considerably in size, with southern colonies averaging larger than northern colonies, in line with Bergmann's rule. Due to the large amount of size variability, it is difficult to determine which is the larger species, but the largest bodied colonies of the southern species are slightly larger on average, in both mass and linear dimensions, than the largest in the northern giant petrel. Body mass can vary widely, from 2.3–5.6 kg (5.1–12.3 lb), with males averaging larger than females. The largest average weights come from Macquarie Island, where 20 males averaged 5.14 kg (11.3 lb) and 21 females averaged 4.2 kg (9.3 lb).[5] On the South Orkney Islands, 37 males averaged 4.94 kg (10.9 lb) and 37 females averaged 3.85 kg (8.5 lb). In contrast, in Patagonia, 15 males averaged 3.5 kg (7.7 lb) and 21 females averaged 2.5 kg (5.5 lb).[6] However another study from Patagonia, found that 26 males averaged 4.2 kg (9.3 lb) and 27 females averaged 3.7 kg (8.2 lb).[7] They have a very large yellow bill, with a green tip and greyish-brown legs.[8] There are two different morphs, the dark which resembles the northern giant petrel, and the more distinct light morph. On the dark morph the upper breast, head and neck are light with the remainder of its plumage being mottled brown.[3] The leading edge of its wing is lighter as is the base of the inner primaries, on the underside. The light morph is rarer and very distinct with only slight black speckles on an otherwise all white look. As juveniles, the dark morph starts off more sooty brown and pales as it ages.[8] Both giant petrels have strong legs and can move around on land effectively.[3] Finally, when in flight this species has a somewhat hunchbacked appearance.[9]

It, like all members of the Procellariiformes have certain features that set them apart from other birds. First, they have nasal passages that attach to the upper bill called naricorns. Although the nostrils on the petrels are on the top of the bill. The bills of all Procellariiformes are also unique in that they are split into between seven and nine horny plates. Finally, they produce a stomach oil made up of wax esters and triglycerides that is stored in the proventriculus. This can be sprayed out of their mouths as a defence against predators as well as used as an energy rich food source for chicks and for the adults during their long flights.[10] They also have a salt gland that is situated above the nasal passage and helps desalinate their bodies, due to the high amount of ocean water that they imbibe; it excretes a concentrated saline solution from the nostrils.[11]

Behaviour[edit]

Juvenile

Reproduction[edit]

Macronectes giganteus
A flock of southern giant petrels feeding at Beagle Channel, Ushuaia, Argentina

The southern giant petrel achieves sexual maturity at six or seven years of age;[3] however the average age of first breeding is ten years.[8] Its breeding season begins in October. Its nest is a mound of moss, grass, and stones with a depression in the centre and is located on bare or grassy ground.[3][9] They form loose colonies except in the Falkland Islands where the colonies are much larger.[8] One egg is laid and is incubated for 55–66 days. When the white chick is born it is brooded for two to three weeks and it fledges at 104–132 days.[3]

Feeding[edit]

This petrel will feed on krill, squid, and offal in coastal and pelagic waters, and unlike most other Procellariiformes, this bird will eat carrion[3][8] and even attack smaller seabirds.[9] The males exclude females from the carcasses that they are feeding off of.[3]

Range and habitat[edit]

Breeding population and trends[8]
LocationPopulationDateTrend
Falkland Islands19,500 pairs2005Increasing
South Georgia5,500 pairs2006Increasing
South Shetland5,400 pairs2006Increasing
South Orkney Islands3,350 pairs2006Increasing
Heard Island & MacDonald Island2,500 pairs2005Decreasing
South America (Isla Noir,
Diego Ramirez, Staten Island,
Patagonia, islands off Chubut, Argentina)
2,300 pairs2006
Macquarie Island2,145 pairs2005Decreasing
Prince Edward Islands1,800 pairs
South Sandwich Islands1,550 pairs2006Increasing
Antarctic Peninsula1,190 pairsDecreasing
Crozet Islands1,060 pairsIncreasing
Antarctic Continent (Terre Adélie)280 pairs2006Decreasing
Tristan da Cunha Islands230 pairs2004Increasing
Kerguelen Islands4 pairsIncreasing
Gough Island1+ pairsIncreasing
Total97,0002007Decreasing 1%–9% per
10 yr/Increasing now

The range of this bird is quite large as it ranges from Antarctica to the subtropics of Chile, Africa, and Australia,[3][9] and has an occurrence range of 36,000,000 km2 (14,000,000 sq mi). It breeds on numerous islands throughout the southern oceans. The islands with larger populations include the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, Staten Island, South Shetland, Heard Island, Macquarie Island, the Prince Edward Islands, and the Crozet Islands. The other locations with small populations are the Kerguelen Islands, Gough Island, Tristan da Cunha, Diego Ramirez, Isla Noir as well as four locations on the continent of Antarctica, including Terre Adélie, and small islands off the coast of Argentina near Chubut Province.[8] The colonies are visited year round.[3]

Conservation[edit]

2009 was a good year for this species as it was upgraded to a status of least concern from near threatened, by the IUCN.[1] This downgrade was due to a clearer picture and more accurate censuses.[1] Overall population trends show that in the 1980s there were 38,000 pairs which dropped to 31,000 in the late 1990s followed by 46,800 presently. The Falkland Islands and most of the South Georgia Archipelago have shown increases from the 1980s to the present. Terre Adélie has shown a drastic reduction as the count fell to 10—15 pairs from 80 pairs in the 1980s. The official 10/3[clarification needed] generation trend is listed by BirdLife International at a 1%—9% declinatation, but it is stated that this is a conservative number. They elaborate that a best case scenario puts it at a 17% increase and a worst-case scenario of a 7.2% reduction.[1][8]

Major threats to the well-being of this species start with the typical accidental deaths caused by longline fishing as well as trawl fishing near the Falkland Islands. Between 2,000 and 4,000 were killed in 1997—1998 due to illegal longline fishing. Also the number of southern elephant seals, which is an important source of food as carrion, has been shrinking. Human disturbances have also adversely affected this bird.[8]

To assist in this bird's continued survival it was placed in CMS Appendix II and ACAP Annex I. Many of the islands that it breeds on are nature reserves, and Gough Island and Macquarie Island are World Heritage Sites. Monitoring is done on South Georgia, Marion Island, the Crozet Islands, Terre Adélie, and Macquarie Island. Gough Island has had two censuses in the last decade.[8]

Continued monitoring and surveys at major breeding sites have been proposed, as well as researching movement and migration. Finally, continued promotion of "best-practice mitigation measures" via existing methods outlined in CCAMLR, CMS, and FAO.[8]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d BirdLife International (2012). "Macronectes giganteus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Brands, S. (2008)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Maynard, B. J. (2003)
  4. ^ Gotch, A. T. (1995)
  5. ^ Carlos, C. J., & Voisin, J. F. (2008). Identifying giant petrels, Macronectes giganteus and M. halli, in the field and in the hand. Publishing Editor, 1.
  6. ^ CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses, 2nd Edition by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (2008), ISBN 978-1-4200-6444-5.
  7. ^ Copello, S., Quintana, F., & Somoza, G. (2006). Sex determination and sexual size-dimorphism in Southern Giant-Petrels (Macronectes giganteus) from Patagonia, Argentina. Emu, 106(2), 141-146.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k BirdLife International (2009)
  9. ^ a b c d Harrison, C. & Greensmith, A. (1993)
  10. ^ Double, M. C. (2003)
  11. ^ Ehrlich, Paul R. (1988)

References[edit]

  • BirdLife International (2009). "Southern Giant Petrel - BirdLife Species Factsheet". Data Zone. Retrieved 15 Jul 2009. 
  • Brooke, M. (2004). "Procellariidae". Albatrosses And Petrels Across The World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850125-0. 
  • Double, M. C. (2003). "Procellariiformes (Tubenosed Seabirds)". In Hutchins, Michael; Jackson, Jerome A.; Bock, Walter J. et al. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8 Birds I Tinamous and Ratites to Hoatzins. Joseph E. Trumpey, Chief Scientific Illustrator (2 ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. pp. 107–111. ISBN 0-7876-5784-0. 
  • Ehrlich, Paul R.; Dobkin, David, S.; Wheye, Darryl (1988). The Birders Handbook (First ed.). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. pp. 29–31. ISBN 0-671-65989-8. 
  • Gotch, A. F. (1995) [1979]. "Albatrosses, Fulmars, Shearwaters, and Petrels". Latin Names Explained A Guide to the Scientific Classifications of Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. New York, NY: Facts on File. pp. 191–192. ISBN 0-8160-3377-3. 
  • Harrison, Colin; Greensmith, Alan (1993). "Non-Passerines". In Bunting, Edward. Birds of the World (First ed.). New York, NY: Dorling Kindersley. p. 42. ISBN 1-56458-295-7. 
  • IUCN (2009). Red List category changes "2009 Red List category changes" (Excel). Red List. Retrieved 16 Jul 2009. 
  • Maynard, B. J. (2003). "Shearwaters, petrels, and fulmars (Procellariidae)". In Hutchins, Michael; Jackson, Jerome A.; Bock, Walter J. et al. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8 Birds I Tinamous and Ratites to Hoatzins. Joseph E. Trumpey, Chief Scientific Illustrator (2 ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. pp. 123–133. ISBN 0-7876-5784-0. 
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