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Range DescriptionThe species breeds across Arctic Siberia from the Yamal Peninsula to Kolyuchinskaya Gulf (north Chukotskiy Peninsula) (Russia), and winters from sub-Saharan Africa through the Middle East and south and south-east Asia to Australasia (van Gils and Wiersma 1996). In the western Palearctic the species follows three migratory routes: down western European coasts to West Africa; across eastern Europe via the Black Sea and Tunisiato West Africa (following the coast of North Africa or via Mali); and via the Black Sea and Caspian Sea and across the Middle East and Rift Valley lakes to southern and eastern Africa (Van Gils and Wiersma 1996). On return migration few birds use the western European flyway, instead moving up via Tunisia and Sivash (north Crimea). Birds that move south through Sivash winter in east, central and southern Africa and probably migrate north via the Caspian Sea. Birds also move across Siberia to India, some may continue down through south-east Asia to Australia but many birds winter in southern India and Sri Lanka, they may also move overland to east Asia and via the coast of China to Australia (Van Gils and Wiersma 1996).