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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

The Great-winged Petrel breeds in the Southern Hemisphere between 30 and 50 degrees south with colonies on Tristan da Cunha and Gough Island (St Helena to UK), the Crozet Islands and Kerguelen Islands (French Southern Territories) the Prince Edward Islands (South Africa), and on the coasts of southern Australia and northern New Zealand. Outside the breeding season it dispereses widely in subtropical parts of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, mainly between 25 and 50 degrees south, though some birds will stray into the Antarctic zone (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
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Source: IUCN

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This marine species is highly pelagic and has a widespread but sparse distribution at sea. It feeds mostly on squid, with some fish and crustaceans, most of which it obtains by dipping and surface-seizing. It feeds mainly at night and may locate some cephalopods by their bioluminescence. It can occasionally be seen following cetaceans and will associate with other Procellariiformes. Breeding occurs in winter, starting in April, nesting being either solitary or in small colonies on oceanic islands on ridges, slopes or flat ground. Breeding usually occurs below 400 m, but has been recorded as high as 1400 m on Tristan de Cunha. It nests in burrows or above ground in rock crevices, among tree roots or under scrub (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
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Source: IUCN

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Depth range based on 335 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 334 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): -1.038 - 23.678
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.147 - 26.537
  Salinity (PPS): 33.701 - 35.838
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.984 - 7.834
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.141 - 1.949
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.009 - 64.864

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): -1.038 - 23.678

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.147 - 26.537

Salinity (PPS): 33.701 - 35.838

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.984 - 7.834

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.141 - 1.949

Silicate (umol/l): 2.009 - 64.864
 
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pterodroma macroptera

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to exceed 1,500,000 individuals.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Wikipedia

Great-winged petrel

Pterodroma macroptera in flight 4 - SE Tasmania.jpg

The great-winged petrel or grey-faced petrel (Pterodroma macroptera) is a petrel. In New Zealand it is also known by its Māori name oi and (along with other species such as the sooty shearwater) as a muttonbird.

Taxonomy[edit]

There are two recognized subspecies of P. macroptera - P. m. macroptera and P. m. gouldi, the latter of which is endemic to New Zealand, and is often called the grey-faced petrel.

Distribution[edit]

Young bird.

It breeds in the Southern Hemisphere between 30 and 50 degrees south with colonies on Tristan da Cunha, Gough Island, the Crozet Islands, the Prince Edward Islands, the Kerguelen Islands and on the coasts of southern Australia and northern New Zealand. It is a rare vagrant to the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California, United States.

Appearance[edit]

The bird is completely dark brown except for a variable patch of white near the base of the bill, which is black. The petrel breeds on islands throughout the southern oceans. It is separated from sooty shearwater and short-tailed shearwater by the all-dark underwing, the thick, stubby bill, and different jizz. Also, the similar flesh-footed shearwater has a light, pinkish bill. Petrels in the genus Procellaria are larger and have a less bounding flight.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

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