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Range DescriptionPuffinus yelkouan is endemic to the Mediterranean basin, but its precise distribution is not well known and numbers are disputed (Bourgeois and Vidal 2008). The main breeding colonies are concentrated in the central and eastern basin of the Mediterranean, from Corsica and Sardinia through the central Mediterranean, the Adriatic and the Aegean (Borg et al. 2010). The species is known to breed in France (662-1,109 pairs), Italy (9,000-20,000 pairs), Malta (1,190 - 1,680 pairs), Algeria (8-10 pairs), Tunisia (176-200 pairs), Croatia (300-500 pairs), Albania (1-10 pairs), Greece (4,000-7,000 pairs) and Bulgaria (0-10 pairs), giving a global estimate of 15,300-30,500 pairs (Derhé 2012). Breeding is assumed in Turkey on offshore islands or mainland cliffs in the Aegean and Mediterranean, but there is very little data on this. A small population may also breed on the eastern Balearic Islands in Spain, although the existence of the species here is somewhat controversial, given the taxonomic uncertainty of the birds breeding in Menorca (Arcos 2011, Curé et al. 2010). Population trends in Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Turkey and Tunisia are currently unknown, but declines are suspected in Croatia and Greece. The population is estimated to be declining rapidly in Italy (N. Baccetti in litt. 2011), France (Oppel et al. 2011) and Malta (Borg and Sultana 2002, Raine et al. 2009, Sultana et al. 2011), representing around three-quarters of the global population. Nine colonies have gone extinct over the last 60 years (Bourgeois and Vidal 2008) and since 2009, one breeding colony off Sardinia (San Pietro Island) has been reported as absent, possibly extinct (N. Baccetti in litt. 2011). Most worryingly, breeding success at many colonies appears to be extremely low and adult survival probabilities across the western Mediterranean have been reported as too low to maintain stable populations (Oppel et al. 2011).