Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is a common and widespread New Zealand endemic. The larger colonies are found in the Three Kings group, Moturoa group, Motuharakeke (Cavalli Islands), north-west Chickens, Bream Islands, Mokohinau group, Channel Island, Mercury group, Ruamahuanui (Aldermen group) and Trio Islands and many other islands in Cook Strait. Fledglings, and possibly some adults, move towards the east and south of Australia in February, but most remain near to breeding colonies throughout the year (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Powlesland and Rickard 1992).
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Range

Breeds is. off New Zealand; ranges to se Australia and Vanuatu.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species breeds on small, vegetated islands and rock stacks. It nests in colonies in burrows under grass, scrub or coastal forest, but occasionally breeds in rocky cavities (Marchant and Higgins 1990). The breeding biology of the species is very poorly known, but laying is believed to begin in early September, and chicks fledge from late January (Powlesland and Rickard 1992). Birds feed mostly on fish and some coastal krill (Marchant and Higgins 1990).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Breeding Category

Vagrant
  • Woehler E.J. (compiler) 2006. Species list prepared for SCAR/IUCN/BirdLife International Workshop on Antarctic Regional Seabird Populations, March 2005, Cambridge, UK.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Puffinus gavia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number at least 100,000 individuals.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Historically, the species has been extirpated from several breeding locations by introduced feral cats, black rats Rattus rattus and brown rats R. norvegicus. The species presently survives mostly on mammal-free islands, but some support populations of Pacific rat R. exulans. These populations are relatively small, and the rats may be having a significant effect on breeding success. Saddle Island supports a R. rattus population. The species is frequently caught on hand and reel-lines in inshore waters, but the impact of this on populations is unknown. Potential threats also include inshore set netting and over-harvesting of inshore fish species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
Pacific rat Rattus exulans has been eradicated from at least 14 island colonies in the last 15 years, and rabbits, goats and cats have also been removed from islands. A long-term experiment to establish a new breeding colony by the translocation of chicks was commenced in 1991 (Bell 1995). Pairs have since established and breeding has occurred in consecutive breeding seasons since 1996 (Powlesland and Rickard 1992, B. D. and D. Bell in litt. 1999).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

IUCN Red List Category

Least Concern
  • Woehler E.J. (compiler) 2006. Species list prepared for SCAR/IUCN/BirdLife International Workshop on Antarctic Regional Seabird Populations, March 2005, Cambridge, UK.
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Wikipedia

Fluttering shearwater

The fluttering shearwater (Puffinus gavia) is a species of seabird in the Procellariidae family.+

It is found in New Zealand and the Solomon Islands where its natural habitats are open seas and rocky shores.

References[edit]


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