Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Foraging close to roosting grounds, the dalmatian pelican fishes in the morning and late afternoon. It may feed alone, or in cooperative groups, sweeping the bill underwater for eels, mullet, gobies, shrimps, worms, beetles, prawns, catfish and other small fish. Whilst swimming, this pelican plunges its head beneath the surface to check for prey. Famous for the large pouch on the throat under the lower half of the bill, the pelican does not always eat as it fishes, instead filling the pouch for later consumption (7). Breeding begins in March and April in the western part of the range, but varies geographically. Nest sites are found in areas with plentiful fish and vegetation, and nests are constructed from reeds, grass, and sticks, fastened together with droppings (7). Between two and four eggs are laid and incubated for 31 days (7) (8). The young pelicans gather in 'pods' after six weeks, and fledge at 75 to 85 days of age (7) (8). They are sexually mature at three to four years (7).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Stunning, silvery-white plumage adorns this large pelican during the breeding season, contrasting with the rubbery orange-red pouch beneath the bill, as well as to the yellow to purple bare skin around the eyes. A thick crest of silver feathers on the nape adds to the luxurious look of this impressive bird. The undersides of the wings are pale grey, darkening towards the ends. As the breeding season progresses, the pouch fades to yellow, and during the winter the plumage loses its silvery sheen, appearing whitish or grey. The dalmatian pelican has a range of vocalisations including barks, hisses and grunts (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

Pelecanus crispus breeds in eastern Europe and east-central Asia, in Serbia and Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Ukraine, Mongolia, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan (Crivelli 1996). European breeders winter in the eastern Mediterranean countries, Russian and central Asian breeders in Iran, Iraq and the Indian subcontinent, and Mongolian birds along the east coast of China (Mix and Bräunlich 2000), including Hong Kong (China). Following massive declines during the 19th and 20th centuries, numbers have stabilised between 10,000-20,000 individuals (including c.4,000-5,000 breeding pairs; Hatzilacou 1993) and several colonies are increasing, including at the species's largest colony, at Lake Mikri Prespa in Greece, as well as in Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey (Crivelli et al. 1997; A. Crivelli in litt. 2003, Onmus et al. 2011, S. Bugariu in litt. 2012). The majority of birds breed in the countries of the former Soviet Union (2,700-3,500 pairs; Peja et al. 1996), although the largest colony is at Lake Mikri Prespa, Greece, with around 1,400 breeding pairs (M. Malakou in litt. 2009) and there are around 450 pairs in the Danube Delta (S. Bugariu in litt. 2007). The Mongolian population continues to decline and is "almost extinct"(S. Chan in litt. 2003) due to threats at all stages of the annual life cycle (Shi et al. 2008).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

Breeds s Eurasia; winters to India.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

The dalmatian pelican has two main populations. The first breeds in Eastern Europe and winters in the eastern Mediterranean region, whilst the second breeds in Russia and central Asia and winters in Iran, Iraq and the Indian subcontinent (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Behaviour This species is dispersive in Europe, and migratory in Asia (del Hoyo et al. 1992). It starts to breed in late March or April (del Hoyo et al. 1992), sometimes solitarily but usually in dense colonies of up to 250 pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1992; Cramp et al. 1977). Adults form monogamous pair bonds (Mix and Bräunlich 2000). It departs from the colonies between the end of July and September, although a few remain until November(Nelson 2005). It is gregarious during the winter, often occurring in large flocks and foraging communally and cooperatively in small groups (Cramp et al. 1977), although occasionally singly (Cramp et al. 1977). The birds return to their breeding sites in late-January to April, depending on the region(Nelson 2005). Immature birds and non-breeders may remain in the wintering grounds year round(Nelson 2005), or may stay with the breeding colonies (Cramp et al. 1977). They are often nomadic, especially in the Caspian Sea(Nelson 2005). Habitat It occurs mainly at inland, freshwater wetlands but also at coastal lagoons, river deltas and estuaries (Crivelli et al. 1997; Mix and Bräunlich 2000; Peja et al. 1996; del Hoyo et al. 1992). Breeding It breeds on small islands in freshwater lakes (del Hoyo et al. 1992) or in dense aquatic vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1992) such as reedbeds of Typha and Phragmites(Crivelli 1994; Peja et al. 1996; Pyrovetsi 1997; del Hoyo et al. 1992), often in hilly terrain(Nelson 2005). A few breed in Mediterranean coastal lagoons (Peja et al. 1996;Nelson 2005). The species makes use of habitats surrounding its breeding sites, including nearby islands and wetlands(Nelson 2005). Non-breeding On migration, large lakes form important stop-over sites(Nelson 2005). It typically winters on jheels and lagoons in India, and ice-free lakes in Europe (del Hoyo et al. 1992). It sometimes fishes inshore along sheltered coasts (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Diet It feeds almost entirely on fish, especially carp Cyprinus carpio, perch Perca fluviatilis, rudd scardinius erythrophthalmus, roach Rutilus rutilus, and pike Esox lucius in freshwater wetlands (del Hoyo et al. 1992), and eels, mullet, gobies and shrimps in brackish waters(Crivelli 1994; Peja et al. 1996). In its winter quarters on the Nile it takes mostly Siluridae(Nelson 2005). In the Mikri Prespa breeding colony in Greece it feeds predominantly on the endemic fish species Chalcalburnus belvica (Pyrovetsi and Economidis (1998). Breeding site Most nests are situated amongst aquatic vegetation on floating or stationary islands isolated from the mainland to avoid mammalian predators(Crivelli 1994; Peja et al. 1996; Pyrovetsi 1997). They are occasionally built on open ground (Hatzilacou 1993; Hatzilacou 1999;Nelson 2005). Nests usually consist of a pile of reeds, grass and sticks approximately 1m high and 0.5-1.5m in diameter (del Hoyo et al. 1992;Nelson 2005). It often tramples the vegetation between nests, and does not tend to nest in areas where such activities would generate deep mud(Nelson 2005). The trampling activity damages the islands and therefore limits the number of years for which an island can be used for breeding (Catsadorakis and Crivelli 2001). On average sites in Greece were found to be used for three years in succession (Catsadorakis and Crivelli 2001). Artificial islands have proved successful as breeding sites in the past (Pyrovetsi 1997) and also in recent years (e.g. since 2008 in Romania [S. Bugariu in litt. 2012]).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Breeds amongst the reed beds or in the open on islands in river deltas and coastal lagoons. The dalmatian pelican is also found at inland, freshwater wetlands (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 35.3 years (captivity)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes

Source: AnAge

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2ce+3ce+4ce

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s
Bugariu, S., Chan, S., Crivelli, A., Pfister, O., Barov, B. & Petkov, N.

Justification
Conservation measures have resulted in a population increase in Europe, particularly at the species's largest colony, at Lake Mikri Prespa in Greece, and also in other countries, following implementation of conservation actions. However, rapid population declines in the remainder of its range are suspected to be continuing and therefore the species is listed as Vulnerable.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status in Egypt

Winter visitor.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

The dalmatian pelican is classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List 2007 (1) and is listed on Appendix I of CITES (3). It is also listed on Appendices I and II of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS or Bonn Convention) (4) and on Appendix II of the Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (5). It is listed on Annex I of the EC Birds Directive (6).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
The population is estimated to number 4,350-4,800 individuals in the Black Sea and Mediterranean; 6,000-9,000 individuals in South-East Asia and south Asia, and 50 individuals in east Asia (Simba Chan in litt. 2005). This totals 10,000-13,900 individuals, roughly equating to 6,700-9,300 mature individuals.

Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
Former declines were primarily caused by wetland drainage, shooting and persecution by fishers(Crivelli 1994; Crivelli et al. 1997; Mix and Bräunlich 2000). Cases of illegal shooting are still reported (e.g. four shootings in 2009 in the Danube Delta; B. Barov in litt. 2009) and hunting is considered one of the main threats for the east Asian population (Shi et al. 2008; Yat-tung Yu and Chen Zhihong 2008). Other continuing threats include disturbance from tourists and fishers, wetland alteration and destruction, water pollution, collision with overhead power-lines and over-exploitation of fish stocks (Crivelli et al. 1999; Hatzilacou 1993; Mix and Bräunlich 2000). Organochloride residues including DDT have been recorded in high levels in the eggs of this species and those of its prey (Albanis et al. 1995). Hunting by herders (for traditional use of the bill) continues to threaten the Mongolian population (Mix and Bräunlich 2000). Nest predation by wild boar at times of low water levels is the most important threat to the Bulgarian breeding colony(N. Petkov in litt. 2007). The breeding colonies in Mediterranean lagoons in Albania and Turkey are threatened by coastal developments and the alteration of the functioning of the lagoons (Peja et al. 1996).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Declines in the past have been due to wetland drainage, shooting, and persecution by fishermen who believe that the dalmatian pelican competes with them for food. Fishermen continue to threaten this bird only in a few areas, as does disturbance from tourists. Currently, habitat degradation from wetland alteration and water pollution are serious threats, which are compounded by over-exploitation of fish stocks by the fishing industry and hunting by Mongolian livestock herders. The bill of the pelican is traditionally used by the Mongolian nomads as a pouch (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I. CMS Appendix I and II. Conservation efforts have reduced the impact of the major threats in Europe (Crivelli et al. 1997). Marking and dismantling of power-lines (Crivelli et al. 1997), the provision of breeding platforms in Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria and Romania and rafts in Greece and Bulgaria, together with wardening (Hatzilacou 1999), water level management and education programmes at key sites, have reduced mortality and increased breeding success. A European action plan was published in 1996 (S. Bugariu in litt. 2007) and reviewed in 2010 (Barov and Derhé 2011). A national species action plan for Romania was officially approved in 2009 (S. Bugariu in litt. 2012).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor breeding, wintering numbers and ecological changes at key sites. Survey potential wintering grounds in central and east Asia. Sustainably manage wetlands. Establish wardened non-intrusion zones around breeding colonies. Bury power-lines or replace with more visible cable. Seek alternatives to traditional use of pelican bills in Mongolia (Hatzilacou 1999). Legally protect the species and its habitat in range states. Conduct public awareness campaigns and mediate potential conflicts with fishermen. Prevent poaching and overexploitation of fish.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation efforts have been successful in controlling some of the more important threats in Europe. Actions include marking and removing power lines, providing breeding platforms in Turkey and Bulgaria and rafts in Greece, as well as guarding key sites. A European action plan was produced in 1996. Continued action is necessary, including the sustainable management of wetlands, complete legal protection of dalmatian pelicans and a halt to the traditional Mongolian use for the pelican bill (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Dalmatian pelican

The Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus) is a massive member of the pelican family. It breeds from southeastern Europe to India and China in swamps and shallow lakes. The nest is a crude heap of vegetation.

No subspecies are known to exist over its wide range, but based on size differences, a Pleistocene paleosubspecies, Pelecanus crispus palaeocrispus, has been described from fossils recovered at Binagady, Azerbaijan.

Description[edit]

Pelecanus crispus-20030720.jpg

This huge bird is the largest of the pelicans and one of the largest living bird species. It measures 160 to 183 cm (5 ft 3 in to 6 ft 0 in) in length, 9–15 kg (20–33 lb) in weight and 290–351 cm (9 ft 6 in–11 ft 6 in) in wingspan.[2][3][4][5][6][7] Its mean weight of around 11.5 kg (25 lb) makes it the world's heaviest flying bird species, although the largest individuals among male bustards and swans may be heavier than the largest individual Dalmatian pelican.[4] It also appears to have one of the largest wingspans of any living bird, rivalling those of the great albatrosses.[7][8]

The somewhat similar-looking great white pelican is typically slightly smaller but the largest male individuals can be essentially the same size as a typical Dalmatian.[7][8] However, the Dalmatian differs from this other very large species in that it has curly nape feathers, grey legs and silvery-white (rather than pure white) plumage. In winter, adult pelicans of this species go from silvery-grey to a dingier brownish-grey cream colour.[9] Immature birds are grey and lack the pink facial patch of immature white pelicans. The loose feathers around the forehead of the Dalmatian pelican can form a W-like-shape on the face right above the bill.[8] In the breeding season it has an orange-red lower mandible and pouch against a yellow upper mandible. In winter, the whole bill is a somewhat dull yellow. The bill, at 36 to 45 cm (14 to 18 in) long, is the second largest of any bird, after the Australian pelican.[8] The bare skin around the eye can vary from yellow to purplish in colour.[10] Among standard measurements, compared to the great white pelican, the Dalmatian's tarsus is slightly shorter, at 11.6 to 12.2 cm (4.6 to 4.8 in), but its tail and wing chord length are notably larger, at 22 to 24 cm (8.7 to 9.4 in) long and 68 to 80 cm (27 to 31 in), respectively.[11][12] When the Dalmatian pelican is in flight, unlike other pelicans, its wings are solid grayish-white with black tips.[8] It is an elegant soaring bird. When a whole flock of Dalmatian pelicans is in flight, all its members move in graceful synchrony, their necks held back like a heron's. It is the largest living creature that can fly[citation needed].

The Dalmatian pelican is often silent, as most pelicans are, although it can be fairly vocal during the mating season, when it may engage in a wide range of guttural, deep vocalisations, including barks, hisses and grunts.[9]

Habitat[edit]

The Dalmatian pelican is found in lakes, rivers, deltas and estuaries. Compared to the great white pelican, the Dalmatian is not as tied to lowland areas and will nest in suitable wetlands at many elevations. It is less opportunistic in breeding habitat selection than the great white, usually returning to a traditional breeding site year after year unless it becomes completely unsuitable. During the winter, Dalmatian pelicans usually stay on ice-free lakes in Europe or jheels (seasonal lakes) in India. They also visit, typically during winter, inshore areas along sheltered coasts for feeding.[8]

A Dalmatian Pelican from the lake of Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India

Movements[edit]

This pelican usually migrates short distances. It is dispersive in Europe, based on feeding opportunities, with most western birds staying through the winter in the Mediterranean region. In the Danube Delta, Dalmatian pelicans arrive in March and leave by the end of August. It is more actively migratory in Asia, where most of the birds that breed in Russia fly down for the winter to the central Middle East, largely around Iran through to the Indian Subcontinent, from Nepal to central India.[9] The pelicans who breed in Mongolia winter along the east coast of China, including the Hong Kong area.[10]

Feeding[edit]

This pelican feeds almost entirely on fish. Preferred prey species can include common carp, European perch, common rudd, eels, catfish (especially silurids during winter), mullet and northern pike, the latter having measured up to 50 cm (20 in) when taken.[8][9] In the largest remnant colony, located in Greece, the preferred prey is reportedly the native Alburnus belvica.[10] The Dalmatian pelican requires around 1,200 g (2.6 lb) of fish per day and can take locally abundant smaller fish such as gobies, but usually ignore them in lieu of slightly larger fish.[8][9] It usually forages alone or in groups of only two or three. It normally swims along, placidly and slowly, until it quickly dunks its head underwater and scoops the fish out, along with great masses of water. The water is dumped out of the sides of the pouch and the fish is swallowed. Occasionally it may feed cooperatively with other pelicans by corralling fish into shallow waters and may even cooperate similarly while fishing alongside cormorants in Greece.[8] Occasionally, the pelican may not immediately eat the fish contained in its gular pouch, so it can save the prey for later consumption.[9] Other small wetlands-dwellers may supplement the diet, including crustaceans, worms, beetles and small water birds, usually nestlings and eggs.[9]

Breeding[edit]

Among a highly social family in general, Dalmatian pelicans may have the least social of inclinations. This species naturally nests in relatively small group compared to most other pelican species and sometimes may even nest alone. However, small colonies are usually formed, which regularly include upwards of 250 pairs (especially historically). Occasionally, Dalmatian pelicans may mix in with colonies of great white pelicans.[8] Nesting sites selected are usually either islands in large bodies of water (typically lagoons or river deltas[9]) or dense mats of aquatic vegetation, such as extensive reedbeds of Phragmites and Typha. Due to their large size, these pelicans often trample the vegetation in the area surrounding their nests into the muddy substrate and thus nesting sites may become unsuitably muddy after around three years of usage.[10]

The nest is a moderately-sized pile of grass, reeds, sticks and feathers, usually measuring about 1 m (3.3 ft) deep and 63 cm (25 in) across. Nests are usually located on or near the ground, often being placed on dense floating vegetation. Nests tend to be flimsy until cemented together by droppings. Breeding commences in March or April, about a month before the great white pelican breeds. The Dalmatian pelican lays a clutch of one to six eggs, with two eggs being the norm. Eggs weigh between 120 and 195 g (4.2 and 6.9 oz).[13] Incubation, which is spilt between both parents, lasts for 30 to 34 days. The chicks are born naked but soon sprout white down feathers. When the young are 6 to 7 weeks of age, the pelicans frequently gather in "pods". The offspring fledge at around 85 days and become independent at 100 to 105 days old. Nesting success relies on local environmental conditions, with any where from 58% to 100% of hatchlings successfully surviving to adulthood. The nesting sites often insure limited nest predation, though carnivorous mammals which eat eggs and nestlings can access nests when water levels are low enough for them to cross, as has been recorded with wild boars destroying nests in Bulgaria.[10] Jackals, foxes, wolves, dogs and lynxes are also regular nest predators when water levels are low and white-tailed eagles may attack pelicans at the colony to at least the size of fledglings.[14][15] Sexual maturity is thought to be obtained at three or four years of age.[8]

Status[edit]

A Dalmatian pelican swimming at Beijing Zoo, China (2008).

This species of pelican has declined greatly throughout its range, more so than the white pelican. It is possible that up to 10,000–20,000 pelicans exist at the species level.[10] Reportedly, there were once millions of Dalmatian pelicans in Romania alone. During the 20th century, the species' numbers underwent a dramatic decline for reasons that are not entirely understood. The most likely reason was habitat loss due to human activities such as the drainage of wetlands and land development. Colonies are regularly disturbed by human activity, and, like all pelicans, the parents may temporarily leave their nest if threatened, which then exposes the chicks to the risk of predation. Occasionally, Dalmatian pelicans may be shot by fishermen who believe the birds are dangerously depleting the fish population and hence threatening their livelihood.[9] While such killings are generally on a small scale, the worry that these pelicans over-exploit the fishing stock persists in many locales. Another probable reason for the decline in the species' population is poaching. In Mongolia, the local people clandestinely kill these pelicans to use or sell their bills as pouches.[9] On a typical day in a commercial Mongolian marketplace, as many as fifty pelican bills may be on offer for sale, and they are considered such a rare prize that ten horses and thirty sheep are considered a fair price to trade for a single pelican.[16] Due to exploitation at all stages of the life cycle, the species is critically endangered in its Mongolian range, with a total population of fewer than 130 individual birds.[10][16] Dalmatian pelicans also regularly fly into power-lines and are killed by electrocution.[10] In Greece, pelicans are often so disturbed by power boats, usually ones bearing tourists—that they become unable to feed and die of malnourishment.[8] In 1994 in Europe there were over a thousand breeding pairs, most of them in Greece, but also in Ukraine, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania (Karavasta Lagoon). They have been considered extinct in Croatia since the 1950s, although a single Dalmatian pelican was observed there in 2011.[17] The largest single remaining colony is at Lake Mikri in Greece, with around 1,400 pairs, with approximately 450 pairs left in the Danube Delta.[10] The country with the largest breeding population today, including about 70% of pairs or possibly over 3,000 pairs, is Russia. Worldwide, there are an estimated 3,000–5,000 breeding pairs.[10] One report of approximately 8,000 Dalmatian pelicans in India turned out to be a congregation of misidentified great white pelicans.[8]

The Dalmatian pelican is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies. Conservation efforts have been undertaken on behalf of the species, especially in Europe.[10] Although they normally nest on the ground, Dalmatian pelicans have nested on platforms put out in Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria and Romania in order to encourage them to breed.[8] Rafts over water have also been set up for the species to use in Greece and Bulgaria.[10] Power-lines have also been marked or dismantled in areas adjacent to colonies in these countries. Additionally, water-level management and educational programs may be aiding them at a local level.[10] Although efforts have been undertaken in Asia, there is a much higher rate of poaching, shooting and habitat destruction there, which may make conservation efforts more difficult.[16] In 2012, when unusually frigid winter conditions caused the Caspian Sea to freeze over, it resulted in the death from starvation of at least twenty of the Dalmatian pelicans that overwinter there. Despite local authorities' initial attempts to discourage it, many people there turned out with fish and hand-fed the birds, apparently enabling the huge pelicans to survive the winter.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Pelecanus crispus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Birdlife International
  3. ^ Burnie D and Wilson DE (Eds.), Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult (2005), ISBN 978-0-7894-7764-4
  4. ^ a b CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (1992), ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
  5. ^ Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds by Christopher Perrins. Firefly Books (2003), ISBN 978-1-55297-777-4
  6. ^ Ali, Salim (1993). The Book of Indian Birds. Bombay: Bombay Natural History Society. ISBN 978-0-19-562167-9. 
  7. ^ a b c Harrison, Peter, Seabirds: An Identification Guide. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (1991), ISBN 978-0-395-60291-1
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n del Hoyo, et al., Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicons (1992), ISBN 978-84-87334-10-8
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Dalmatian pelican videos, photos and facts – Pelecanus crispus. ARKive. Retrieved on 2012-08-22.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus) – BirdLife species factsheet. Birdlife.org (1998-10-03). Retrieved on 2012-08-22.
  11. ^ Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus). Avis.indianbiodiversity.org. Retrieved on 2012-08-22.
  12. ^ Great White Pelican – Pelecanus onocrotalus. Avis.indianbiodiversity.org. Retrieved on 2012-08-22.
  13. ^ Dalmatian Pelican – Pelecanus crispus : WAZA : World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. WAZA. Retrieved on 2012-08-22.
  14. ^ Crivelli, A. J. (April 1996). Action Plan for the Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus) In Europe. europa.eu
  15. ^ Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus). Planet of Birds (2011-06-08). Retrieved on 2012-08-22.
  16. ^ a b c Nyambayar, B., Bräunlich, A., Tseveenmyadag, N., Shar, S. & Gantogs, S. (2007). "Conservation of the critically endangered east Asian population of Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus in western Mongolia". BirdingASIA 7: 68–74. 
  17. ^ Coleman, Loren. (2011-03-24) Croatian Dalmatian Pelican Sighted. Cryptomundo. Retrieved on 2012-08-22.
  18. ^ Trapped Dalmatian pelicans hand-fed in frozen Caspian Sea. Bbc.co.uk (2012-02-21). Retrieved on 2012-08-22.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!