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Chinese crested tern
The Chinese crested tern (Thalasseus bernsteini, syn. Sterna bernsteini - see Bridge et al., 2005) is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae, closely related to Sandwich tern T. sandvicensis and lesser crested tern T. bengalensis. It is most similar to the former, differing only in the bill pattern, which is the reverse of the Sandwich Tern's, being yellow with a black tip. From Lesser Crested Tern, which it overlaps in wintering distribution, it can be told by the white rump and paler grey mantle, as well as the black tip to the bill, which seen from up close also has a white point. The larger greater crested tern is also similar, differing in the stouter, all-yellow bill and darker grey mantle and rump, as well as in size.
It is a critically endangered species, previously thought extinct, with a mere four pairs rediscovered in 2000, nesting in a greater crested tern colony on an islet in the Matsu Islands (territory governed by Taiwan), just off the coast of Fujian Province, China, and wintering south to the Philippines. In the past, it had a wider distribution off the Chinese east coast north to Shandong Province. The decline is thought to be due to past hunting and egg collection for food. Past protection of this colony may be because of the islands' disputed status, administered by Taiwan but claimed by mainland China, the military sensitivity of the area restricting access. The islet has now been declared a wildlife sanctuary. It is possible that other small colonies may yet be found off the Chinese and Taiwanese coasts; migrant birds have been seen near the mouth of the Pachang River. The total population is speculated to be less than 50 birds.
In 2007 it was estimated that the Chinese crested tern would be extinct in 5 years if authorities would not protect it. BirdLife International of Cambridge, England stated that a survey of Chinese experts found that the number of crested terns fell to 50 birds, half the population of 2004. A Chinese survey team led by Chen Shuihua stated that the bird was "on the verge of extinction."
- BirdLife International (2013). "Sterna bernsteini". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 15 May 2014. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is critically endangered and the criteria used
- Bridge, E. S.; Jones, A. W. & Baker, A. J. (2005): A phylogenetic framework for the terns (Sternini) inferred from mtDNA sequences: implications for taxonomy and plumage evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35: 459–469. PDF fulltext