- Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, B.L. Sullivan, C. L. Wood, and D. Roberson. 2012. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.7. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/downloadable-clements-checklist
- UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
Habitat and Ecology
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
The species occurs in a number of protected areas.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out regular surveys to monitor the population throughout its range. Conduct education activities to help alleviate human pressures on river and lake habitats. Lobby against high-risk dam projects, especially in South-East Asia.
The Indian river tern or just river tern (Sterna aurantia) is a bird in the tern family . It is a resident breeder along inland rivers from Iran east into the Indian Subcontinent and further to Myanmar to Thailand, where it is uncommon. Unlike most Sterna terns, it is almost exclusively found on freshwater, rarely venturing even to tidal creeks.
This species breeds from March to May in colonies in less accessible areas such as sandbanks in rivers. It nests in a ground scrape, often on bare rock or sand, and lays three greenish-grey to buff eggs, which are blotched and streaked with brown.
This is a medium-sized tern, 38–43 cm long with dark grey upperparts, white underparts, a forked tail with long flexible streamers, and long pointed wings. The bill is yellow and the legs red. It has a black cap in breeding plumage. In the winter the cap is greyish white, flecked and streaked with black, there is a dark mask through the eye, and the tip of the bill becomes dusky.
The sexes are similar but juveniles have a brown head, brown-marked grey upperparts, grey breast sides and white underparts. The bill is yellowish with a dark tip
As with other Sterna terns, the river tern feeds by plunge-diving for fish, crustaceans, tadpoles and aquatic insects in rivers, lakes, and tanks. Its numbers are decreasing due to the pollution of their habitat.
- Birds of India by Grimmett, Inskipp and Inskipp, ISBN 0-691-04910-6
- Seabirds: An Identification Guide by Harrison, Peter ISBN 0-7470-1410-8
In breeding plumage in Hyderabad
In non-breeding plumage in Hyderabad
Nest at Koyna lake
Chick at Koyna lake
Chick at Ranganthittu Bird Sanctuary
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sterna aurantia.|
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