Southern Africa Bushveld
Garman's toad (Amietophrynus garmani) is found in the Southern African bushveld, among other ecoregions. The Southern Africa bushveld is an element of the vast savannas that cover much of southern Africa. There is low endemism in this ecoregion for both flora or fauna, but the charismatic large mammals and rich birdlife characteristic of African savannas are in evidence. The rugged Waterberg Mountains contain the highest levels of species richness and endemism in the region, and are noted for their reptilian endemism. The ecoregion occurs on an extensive, undulating interior plateau, which lies at an elevation between 700 metres (m) to 1100 m. The soils of this plateau are chiefly coarse, sandy and shallow, overlying granite, quartzite, sandstone or shale. The most distinctive topographical feature of the ecoregion is the rugged and rocky Waterberg Mountains, which rise up from the plateau to an elevation of between 1200 m to 1500 m.http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/51cbeeed7896bb431f69b38d/554565bb0cf24df5070a17ee/?topic=51cbfc79f702fc2ba8129ee0
The ecoregion amphibian associates of the Southern African bushveld are: Savanna ridged frog (Ptychadena anchietae); Angola frog (Rana angolensis); African gray treefrog (Chiromantis xerampelina); Senegal running frog (Kassina senegalensis); Striped stream frog (Strongylopus fasciatus); African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis); African split-skin toad (Schismaderma carens); Uzungwe grassland frog (Ptychadena uzungwensis); African ornate frog (Hildebrandtia ornata); Mababe river frog (Phrynobatrachus mababiensis); Marbled sand frog (Tomopterna marmorata); Marbled snout burrower (Hemisus marmoratus); Knocking sand frog (Tomopterna krugerensis), which is found broadly in southern Africa; and the Transvaal short-headed frog (Breviceps adspersus); Mozambique ridged frog (Ptychadena mossambica); Lukula grassland frog (Ptychadena taenioscelis); Horseshoe forest treefrog (Leptopelis bocagii); South African snake-necked frog (Phrynomantis bifasciatus); Boettger's dainty frog (Cacosternum boettgeri); Natal ghost frog (Heleophryne natalensis); Cryptic sandfrog (Tomopterna cryptotis); Mozambique rain frog (Breviceps mossambicus); Long reed frog (Hyperolius nasutus); Muller's clawed frog (Xenopus muelleri); Common reed frog (Hyperolius viridiflavus); Gray's stream frog (Strongylopus grayii); Natal puddle frog (Phrynobatrachus natalensis); Painted reed frog (Hyperolius marmoratus); Garman's toad (Amietophrynus garmani); Gutteral toad (Amietophrynus gutturalis); Transvaal dwarf toad (Poyntonophrynus fenoulheti); and the Flat-back toad (Amietophrynus maculatus).
Example reptilian associates within this ecoregion are: Bibron's worm snake (Typhlops bibronii); Vine snake (Thelotornis capensis); Black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis); Angola garter snake (Elapsoidea semiannulata); Annobon lidless skink (Panaspis annobonensis); Bark snake (Hemirhagerrhis nototaenia); Bell's hingeback tortoise (Kinixys belliana); Blue throated agama (Acanthocercus atricollis); Blunt-tailed worm lizard (Dalophia pistillum); Bradfield's dwarf gecko (Lygodactylus bradfieldi); the endemic gecko Broadley's rock gecko (Afroedura broadleyi); and the endemic lizards Platysaurus minor and Platysaurus monotropis.
Some of the many mammalian taxa found within the Southern African bushveld are: Burchell's zebra (Equus quagga burchelli); Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), a herbivore classified as Vulnerable; Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), a carnivore classified as Vulnerable; the Near Threatened White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum); Commerson's roundleaf bat (Tomopterna cryptotis), classified as Near Threatened; Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta); and the Mauritian tomb bat (Taphozous mauritianus).
There are numerous avian species found in this ecoregion, a few examples being: the Near Threatened Red footed falcon (Falco vespertinus); Kori bustard (Ardeotis kori); Long-crested eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis); Olive bee eater (Merops superciliosus); Marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus); Martial eagle (Polemaetus bellicosus); and the Pink-backed pelican (Pelecanus rufescens).
Habitat and Ecology
Life History and Behavior
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Falco vespertinus
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Falco vespertinus
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 2012Near Threatened
Status in Egypt
Regular passage visitor and winter visitor?
Added to Annex I of EU Birds Directive in 2004. Recent conservation measures in Hungary have shown that birds will occupy artificial colonies, meaning that this could be a useful mid-term conservation tool to stop population fragmentation (P. Palatitz in litt. 2007). The species is also included in Agro-environmental programs in Hungary. Following surveys in Bulgaria, which indicated a decline in the number of suitable breeding sites, over 100 nest boxes were constructed and installed in suitable places during 2006; however, none were used by the species in 2007(Anon. 2007). Anti-poaching patrols have been increased in the Akrotiri area of Cyprus, following the unprecedented loss of a migratory flock to hunters in October 2007 (BirdLife International news [www.birdlife.org/news] 2007). Sporadic irregular population surveys have been carried out and are implemented in Serbia, while a nation-wide census of the species was concluded in 2009, in the Ukraine (Kostenko 2009). A European Action Plan for the species has been in implementation since 2010 (Palatitz et al. 2009). Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue to carry out regular surveys to monitor population trends. Conduct further research into the effects of changes in agriculture and land management. Change farming and land-use practices in Central Europe, through EU policy and/or national schemes. Provide more artificial colonies for the species. Prevent hunting in problem areas through law enforcement, prosecution and awareness campaigns.
The red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus), formerly western red-footed falcon, is a bird of prey. It belongs to the family Falconidae, the falcons. This bird is found in eastern Europe and Asia although its numbers are dwindling rapidly due to habitat loss and hunting. It is migratory, wintering in Africa. It is a regular wanderer to western Europe, and in August 2004 a red-footed falcon was found in North America for the first time on the island of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts.
The Amur falcon was formerly included herein as a subspecies but it is nowadays considered well distinct. Nonetheless, it is the present species' closest relative; their relationship to other falcons is more enigmatic. They appear morphologically somewhat intermediate between kestrels and hobbies and DNA sequence data has been unable to further resolve this question, mainly due to lack of comprehensive sampling. They might be closer to the merlin than to most other living falcons, or more generally related to this species and American falcons such as the American kestrel and the aplomado falcon.
It is a medium-small, long-winged species. The adult male is all blue-grey, except for his red undertail and legs; its underwings are uniformly grey. The female has a grey back and wings, orange head and underparts, and a white face with black eye stripe and moustaches.
Young birds are brown above and buff below with dark streaks, and a face pattern like the female. Red-footed falcons are 28–34 cm (11–13½ in) in length with a wingspan of 65–75 cm (25½–29½ in). The average mass is 155 g (5.5 oz).
Breeding and Some Behavior
Azerbaijan Red-footed falcons were witnessed copulating several times over a week-long period and "showed a strong preference for an old magpie nest"  Frequent copulation was interspersed with joint inspections of the magpie nest. The morning after the aforementioned observations, the pair was again observed and they repeated their behavior. Both then defended against an attack by a lesser kestrel. On this day neither bird spent much time in the nest, but always remained perched beside it. At the end of the week the researchers revisited the nest. The behavior this time was that the female sat in the nest and the male perched outside but in the same tree. Further defensive responses to lesser kestrels were observed. The male red-footed falcon hunted for large insects and fed them to the female. Copulation then occurred. After copulation, the female returned to sit in the nest until the male fed her again. This behavior continued for several days. This pair clearly showed territorial behavior. The frequent copulations and lengthy stay of the female in the nest suggested incubation but the researchers did not check the nest.
Carpathian Basin Researchers used a species distribution model for red-footed falcons. This model can play a crucial role in identifying key nesting sites for endangered species. According to the researchers, the red-footed falcon is officially listed as near-threatened, due to the drastic breeding population decline of the past decades. Red-footed falcons breed in colonies and in solitary pairs. They do not build a nest. In Hungary, the landscape scale distribution of rookeries remained stable, while the density and size of rookeries decreased and their location shifted to human settlements. Similar patterns were reported from other European countries. The reasons of rookery declines can be attributed to a large-scale persecution in the mid-80s resulting in a 90% population crash. Because of this, most potential breeding colonies for red-footed falcons disappeared, causing a decline in the number of breeding pairs. Conservation projects have established artificial nest box colonies to rectify this problem. There is little evidence of this plan's effectiveness and also little evidence on recent population trends and distribution, from Northern Serbia, where 5-10% of the total European Union population is thought to breed. The researchers' main focus was on understanding the relationship between landscape scale habitat variables and red-footed falcon presence. The researchers found that the increase of natural grasslands had a positive effect on nest site presence while the increase of broad-leaved forests negatively influenced the probability of nest site presence. Their modeling approach proved successful in describing the landscape scale habitat composition of red-footed falcon breeding sites in the modeling area. Natural grasslands have a considerable impact on the probability of nest site presence. Therefore, locating their breeding sites or creating breeding sites by providing artificial colonies with the aid of our results has additional conservation and socio-economic benefits for wildlife and human population.
Near the village Melenci (Voivodina, northern Serbia) there were 22 red-footed falcon Falco vespertinus nests in 1991 in which offspring had been successfully brought up. The contents of four nests were checked daily from the start of incubation until the fledglings left the nests. Breeding success did not differ between the group of 4 nests disturbed by inspections and the remaining 18. Despite the fact that the ratio of parent bird presence (both, only female, only male) and absence differed in the comparison of the four nests, red-footed falcon parents were usually found in the close surroundings, i.e. they attended their nest. The attendance of the birds to the nests differed between the sexes during incubation as well as hatching and the nestling period, which fact can be interpreted as a difference between the roles of females and males. In 59% of the cases it was the female, while in 41% it was the male bird that was sitting on the eggs. At the time of hatching it was mostly the female (female 86%, male 14%) that was present in the nest, while after hatching it was only the female. Later on the adult birds usually took off from the branch supporting the nest, from neighbouring trees, or from abandoned rook (Corvus frugilegus) nests, rather than from the nest itself. Females participated more times in the defence of the nest than males, yet the ratios of the studied types of behaviour (alarm, repellence, attack) did not differ between the sexes. However, significant difference appeared to be present between four nests when the distribution frequency of the three behaviour types was looked at. The distribution of the reaction types of the parent birds to disturbance was significantly different in the periods of incubation, hatching and nestling, respectively. As nesting proceeded and parental investment grew, the number of repellences and attacks increased proportionally.
The survey of population size and distribution of red-footed falcons proceeded in June–July 2000 and 2001 respectively, ten years after the first census (1990 and 1991). Data of only those nests were processed in which there was breeding. Breeding Success was calculated from the number of offspring per reproductive female. During the survey in Voivodina in 1990-1991 there were 308 and 124 pairs, respectively, whereas ten years later, in the year 2000 there were 116, and in 2001 only 61 pairs of red-footed falcons. Even if the marked fluctuations observed are not considered, the red-footed falcon population breeding in Voivodina shows a declining tendency. The south-western margin of the distribution area has moved towards the northeast by about 50-70 kilometres. More than 90% of the nesting sites, including the larger nesting colonies, are found in the Banat region, i.e. east of the Tisa River. More than 90% of the red-footed falcons continue to nest in rook colonies. No significant change has occurred in their breeding success.
The red-footed falcon is a bird of prey with a diet consisting of a variety of insects, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds, such as great green bush-crickets, spadefoot toads, sand lizards, the common vole and bird nestlings, respectively. This bird's distinctive method of hunting is shared by the common kestrel. It regularly hovers, searching the ground below, then makes a short steep dive towards the target. When feeding their nestlings, the youngest nestlings receive the most food more frequently and more regularly. Chicks that are between 0 and 3 weeks old will get fed bigger prey like toads, lizards, bird nestlings, and great green bush-crickets, while nestlings over that age will get fed less frequently and with less variety. Young nestlings's diet consists mostly of Orthoptera and Coleoptera with a little bit of Vertebrata, while older nestlings's diet mostly consists of Orthoptera and almost never receives Vertebrata.
The red-footed falcon tends to reside in typical steppe type habitats ranging from Eastern Europe to Lake Baikal in Central Asia. This is a diurnal bird of open country with some trees, often near water. They tend to migrate far south for the winter, including in areas of Africa. The red-footed falcon tends not to make their own nests, but tend to use abandoned nests made by other birds such as the hooded crow, rook, and magpie. The nests that are chosen tend to be higher than the majority of the other nests; the nests tend to be 13–20 meters above the ground and within 3–4 meters of the tree top. Most of these nests tend to be near the edge of woods, avoiding nesting on solitary trees. Breeding takes place in these abandoned nests; usually breeding occurs colonially in rookeries because these birds tend to stay together in groups. This is also important because fledging success tends to be higher when these birds are in colonies and are not solitary. The red-footed falcon relies on the nests built by rooks, and with a decline in population of rooks, the number of suitable rookeries for colonial nesting has also decreased, leading humans to ideas of conservation.
A major impact on the red footed falcon's population is loss and degradation of natural nest sites. Rooks and rookeries are regularly attacked, by shooting into the nests, killing birds and cutting down the trees they were living in for the wood. Pesticides are also a huge threat as they are depleting their natural food sources, making food competitive. There is also an increased mortality caused by electrocution due to the bird's habit of sitting perched on power lines. From 1980 to 1999 intensive poisoning of C. frugilegus in Hungary forced the species to change its nest site selection habits, and large colonies have nearly disappeared there as a result, with only 38% of the population breeding colonially. As productivity is generally greater in larger colonies, further decreases may occur. The species appears to be hunted opportunistically during migration.
The total population of Falco vespertinus around the world is estimated to be between 26,000 to 39,000 pairs. Most of the population breeds in the steppe grasslands of Russia and central Asia, although a significant amount also breeds in the Ukraine, Romania and Hungary. In 2005, the population in Hungary was estimated to be between 700 to 800, showing a steady decline. Red-footed falcons can be considered as a classic umbrella species because they affect other species living in the community. They play a popular role in the Natura 2000 designation process. Therefore, locating their breeding sites or creating breeding sites by providing artificial colonies has additional conservation and socio-economic benefits for both wildlife and the local human population.
Conservation of Falco vespertinus in the Pannonian Region
A conservation program, which was funded by the EU's LIFE Nature financial instrument, was initiated on January 1, 2006 with the goal of increasing and maintaining the breeding population of the species in Hungary and western Romania. This conservation project developed a method to create more nesting sites by creating artificial nest box colonies. It's pretty common for the birds to be preyed upon by martens or other mammalian predators during incubation or during the nestling state, even in the artificial colonies. Some extreme cases show that the predators may threaten the existence of every clutch in the colony. They are using many methods to repel or trap potential predators in order to avoid predation. Some of those methods are listed in this section. There are many known threatening factors and the program takes active conservation measures against them. Some of these factors include being electrocuted by electric pylons so the program locates and insulates the exposed cables. Roadside trees are a common nesting site for ralcons because they are also home to corvids. Previously, only safety aspects were considered in the management of these nesting facilities. Therefore the project will submit a conservation based management plan to the correct authorities. One of the reasons of red-footed falcon decline is the collapse of the rook population due to drastic pest control measures. Based on previous experience and information from stakeholders, a draft "corvus management plan" will be prepared to handle the conflict situations caused by rooks.
Future conservation efforts proposed include continuing to conduct regular surveys throughout the area. Figuring out additional ways to help the species is crucial. Red-footed falcons are known to use artificial colonies, therefore, they can be a useful mid-term conservation tool to prevent their population from fragmenting. Also, there may be ways to help out the species by changing farming and land-use practices in Central Europe. Surveys in Bulgaria indicated that there is a decline in available breeding sites for the birds.
- BirdLife International (2013). "Falco vespertinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Wink, Michael; Seibold, I.; Lotfikhah, F. & Bednarek, W. (1998): Molecular systematics of holarctic raptors (Order Falconiformes). In: Chancellor, R.D., Meyburg, B.-U. & Ferrero, J.J. (eds.): Holarctic Birds of Prey: 29–48. Adenex & WWGBP.
- Griffiths, Carole S. (1999). "Phylogeny of the Falconidae inferred from molecular and morphological data". Auk 116 (1): 116–130. doi:10.2307/4089459.
- Griffiths, Carole S.; Barrowclough, George F.; Groth, Jeff G. & Mertz, Lisa (2004). "Phylogeny of the Falconidae (Aves): a comparison of the efficacy of morphological, mitochondrial, and nuclear data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32 (1): 101–9. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.11.019. PMID 15186800.
- Wasser, D. E.; Sherman, P.W. (2010). "Avian longevities and their interpretation under evolutionary theories of senescence". Journal of Zoology 280 (2): 103–155. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00671.x.
- Heiss, Michael (2011). "The first breeding record of the Red-footed Falcon, Falco vespertinus (Linnaeus, 1766), in Azerbaijan". Zoology in the Middle East 52 (1): 113–15. doi:10.1080/09397140.2011.10638486.
- Harnos, A (2012). "Allocating active conservation measures using species distribution models: a case study of red-footed falcon breeding site management in the Carpathian Basin". Animal Conservation 15 (6): 648–57.
- Purger, J.J. (2001). "Defence behaviour of Red-footed Falcons Falco vespertinus in the breeding period and the effects of disturbance on breeding success". Ornis Fennica 78 (1): 13–21.
- Purger, J.J. (2008). "Numbers and distribution of Red-footed Falcons (Falco vespertinus) breeding in Voivodina (northern Serbia): a comparison between 1990-1991 and 2000-2001". Belgian Journal of Zoology 138 (1): 3–7.
- Purger, J.J. "Diet of Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus nestlings from hatching to fledging". Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- Fehervari, Peter; A. Harnos; D. Neidert; P. Palatitz; SZ. Solt (2008). "Modeling Habitat Selection of the Red-Footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus): A Possible Explanation of Recent Changes in Breeding Range Within Hungary". pp. 1–14. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- Purger, J.J; Andreja Tepavcevic (1999). "Pattern analysis of red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus) nests in the rook (Corvus frugilegus) colony near Torda (Voivodina, Yugoslavia), using fuzzy correspondences and entropy". Ecological Modelling: 91–97. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- "Conservation of Falco vespertinus in the Pannonian Region LIFE05 NAT/H/ 000122".
- "Natura 2000".
- Fehérvári, P.; Solt, S.; Palatitz, P.; Barna, K.; Ágoston, A.; Gergely, J.; Nagy, A.; Nagy, K.; Harnos, A.; Altwegg, Res; Penteriani, Vincenzo (1 December 2012). "Allocating active conservation measures using species distribution models: a case study of red-footed falcon breeding site management in the Carpathian Basin". Animal Conservation 15 (6): 648–657. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2012.00559.x.
- "Conservation of Falco vespertinus in the Pannonian Region LIFE05 NAT/H/ 000122".
- "www.iucnredlist.org". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
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