Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Falco novaeseelandiae is endemic to New Zealand, and is separated into three forms - Bush, Southern and Eastern - which vary in plumage, size, range and habitat type (Marchant and Higgins 1993). Bush Falcon (c.650 pairs) breeds in the North Island and north-western South Island; Southern Falcon (c.200 pairs) breeds in Fiordland, Stewart Island and its outliers, and the Auckland Islands (Fox 1978, Heather and Robertson 1997, Bell and Lawrence 2009); Eastern Falcon (c.3,150) is found in open terrain in the eastern South Island (Fox 1978, Heather and Robertson 1997, Bell and Lawrence 2009). It was probably once found throughout the North and South Islands, but may have never been common. Population trends are unknown but it may be declining.

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Range

Locally in New Zealand, Stewart I. and Auckland Islands.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Physical Description

Type Information

Type for Falco novaeseelandiae
Catalog Number: USNM A13862
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Birds
Sex/Stage: Male; Adult
Preparation: Skin: Whole
Collector(s): Collector Unknown
Locality: Bay of Islands, Bay Of Islands, North Island, New Zealand, Australia
  • Type: Peale. 1848. U.S. Exploring Expedition. 8 (mamm. and orn.): 67, pl. xviii.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Birds

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Type for Falco novaeseelandiae
Catalog Number: USNM A13862
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Birds
Sex/Stage: Male; Adult
Preparation: Skin: Whole
Collector(s): Collector Unknown
Locality: Bay of Islands, Bay Of Islands, North Island, New Zealand, Australia
  • Type: Peale. 1848. U.S. Exploring Expedition. 8 (mamm. and orn.): 67, pl. xviii.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Birds

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It occurs predominantly in bush and forest, and Eastern Falcon also breeds in rough farmland and dry tussockland. The species also breeds in exotic pine plantations (Stewart and Hyde 2004) and this is now recognised as a major habitat for the species (Pawson et al. 2010) and extremely high densities can be supported (Seaton 2009). Adults are mainly sedentary but juveniles wander widely and are seen in farmland, orchards and urban areas. Juvenile dispersal may occur earlier in exotic pine plantations (Seaton et al. 2008). Established pairs remain on territory all year and display during late winter and early spring before nesting in September-December. When food availability is high females may breed in their first year (Seaton and Hyde 2008), though age of sexual maturity is typically considered 20 months (Marchant and Higgins 1993). The majority of prey taken are small passerines (Seaton et al. 2008), although prey species several times heavier than the falcon have also been recorded (Hyde and Seaton 2008).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Falco novaeseelandiae

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s
Stewart, D.

Justification
This species has a moderately small population which may be experiencing declines. However, there are a number of moderately large sub-populations and hence it is classified as Near Threatened.


History
  • Near Threatened (NT)
  • Near Threatened (NT)
  • Near Threatened (NT)
  • Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
  • Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
  • Near Threatened (NT)
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