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Range DescriptionFalco deiroleucus has a range covering much of Latin America. The most northerly limit of its distribution is in southern Mexico. In 1992, a total of 10 pairs were known from Belize and Tikal National Park, Guatemala. The species is known from throughout southern Central America, through El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama to Colombia, where it is very rare (del Hoyo et al. 1994). From there, its range extends eastwards through Venezuela, where it is considered scarce and local with most known pairs in remote locations (Hilty 2003, Restall et al. 2006). In Guyana and Suriname it is also scarce, and likewise in French Guiana, although here it is at least widespread. It is scarce in Trinidad and Tobago, with no records from the latter island. It is rare in Ecuador, and is also known to range through Brazil and Bolivia to Paraguay, north Argentina (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Restall et al. 2006), and was recorded for the first time in Chile, at Calama, in 2007 (Jara 2008). Declines in territory occupancy, average annual fledgling production per pair and the overall breeding productivity of the population were noted between 1992-1997 and 2003-2009 in Belize (Berry et al. 2010), and these declines continue (R. B. Berry in litt. 2011). The small population (c.30 pairs) in Belize and Guatemala appears to be isolated (Berry et al. 2010, R. B. Berry in litt. 2011), and an analysis of historical and contemporary records suggests that the species has been extirpated from much of Central America and southern Mexico, and that its range is contracting in South America (Berry et al. 2010). The species is thus suspected to have declined overall, owing primarily to continued habitat loss and fragmentation, and this negative trend is projected to continue (Bird et al. 2011).