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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

The southern royal albatross usually pairs for life, with new pairs performing elaborate courtship displays that include actions like 'bill-circling', 'sky-pointing', 'flank-touching' with the bill, and full spreading of the wings, typically accompanied by a variety of calls (6). Breeding occurs every two years, if successful, with breeding birds returning to their nesting grounds from late October to mid-November (6) (7) (8). Previously mated pairs usually use the same nest site from season to season (6). The male arrives at the nest-site a few days before the female to defend the territory from other males and rebuild or start building a new nest (6). One egg is laid in November to December and incubated by both parents for 79 days (6) (7) (8). Chicks hatch in February to March and usually fledge eight months later from October to December (8). Juveniles do not return to their natal colony until four to eight years of age, but these long-lived birds do not begin breeding until nine to eleven years (6) (7). The southern royal albatross feeds mainly on surface shoaling fish and squid, supplemented by crustaceans and carrion, which are mostly hunted at night (2) (6) (7).
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Description

With a wing-span of over three metres, this enormous black and white albatross is amongst the largest birds in the world and thoroughly deserving of its majestic name (2) (5). Individuals are mostly white, with black tips to the wings and tail, and have a faintly pinkish bill with black edging on the upper beak (5). The southern royal albatross can be distinguished from the northern royal albatross (Diomedea sanfordi), by its slightly larger size and more extensive white on its upper wing (2) (6).
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Distribution

The range of Diomedea epomophora extends throughout the oceans of the Southern Hemisphere. Two subspecies of D. epomophora are recognized today. Northern royal albatrosses (D. e. sanfordi) commonly nest on Campbell Island and the Auckland Islands. Southern royal albatrosses (D.e. epomophora) nest almost exclusively on the Chatham Islands, located hundreds of miles east of New Zealand. After breeding, the species may circumnavigate the Southern Ocean, though it is most commonly sighted in New Zealand and South American waters. It has never been recorded north of the Equator.

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native ); australian (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )

  • del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, J. Sargatal. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
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Range Description

Diomedea epomophora breeds on Campbell Island (99% of the total population), on Adams, Enderby and Auckland Islands (Auckland Islands group), and on Taiaroa Head (Otago Peninsula, South Island), New Zealand. The Campbell population was estimated at 7,800 breeding pairs in 2004-2008 (ACAP 2009). In 2001, 69 pairs were present on Enderby (Childerhouse et al. 2003), and c.20 breed on Auckland and Adams Islands combined (Croxall and Gales 1998). No pure-bred D. epomophora are present at Taiaroa Head (Heather and Robertson 1997, Taylor 2000). The species circumnavigates the Southern Ocean after breeding (Croxall and Gales 1998), but is most commonly recorded in New Zealand and South American waters (Marchant and Higgins 1990). Breeding adults forage from the South Island southwards to the Campbell Plateau (Waugh et al. 2002) and north to the Chatham Rise. Non-breeding birds forage on the west and east coast of South America (Moore and Bettany 2005), generally between 30-55°S (ACAP 2009). Whole island censuses on Campbell Island in 1994-1995 and study plot censuses in 1996-1997 indicate that the population is likely to be stable, or possibly increasing (Moore et al. 1997).

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Range

Campbell and Auckland islands; ranges circumpolar s oceans.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Range

Breeding occurs on Adams, Enderby and Auckland Islands (Auckland Islands group), Campbell Island, and on Taiaroa Head (Otago Peninsula, South Island), New Zealand (2). This otherwise pelagic species is most commonly recorded in New Zealand and South American waters in the non-breeding season, but may circumnavigate all the way around the Southern Ocean (2) (5).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Considered the largest seabird and amongst the largest of all birds capable of flight, D. epomophora is most recognizable by its remarkably long, slender, knife-like wings. It can have a wingspan of over ten feet. It weighs 9000 g on average and is 107 to 122 cm long. There are two subspecies of D. epomophora, however, differences in appearance are minimal. Both are predominantly white, with faint pinkish bills. Northern royal albatross (D. e. sanfordi) are considerably smaller and have entirely black upper wings. Southern royal albatross (D. e. epomophora) have predominantly white wings with black markings near the wing tips. There is little sexual dimorphism within the species, and males tend to be only slightly larger than females.

Average mass: 9000 g.

Range length: 107 to 122 cm.

Range wingspan: 305 to 351 cm.

Average wingspan: 325 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Ecology

Habitat

Nearly 80 percent of a royal albatross' life is spent directly exposed to the cold, treacherous, open oceans of the Southern Hemisphere. Remote tropical islands are sought out for nesting. They typically nest on slopes with tussock grass providing some shelter, though exposed sites are also common as they ease the often difficult tasks of take-off and landing.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: pelagic ; coastal

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Behaviour Breeding is biennial if a chick is successfully reared. Birds return to colonies in October and eggs are laid from late November to late December. Chicks hatch from early February to early March, and fledge in early October to early December. Age of first return to colonies is at least 5 years and the age of first breeding is thought to be around 6-12 years old (ACAP 2009). Habitat Breeding It nests on tussock grassland slopes, ridges, and plateaus (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Heather and Robertson 1997). Diet It feeds primarily on squid and fish, supplemented by salps, crustacea and carrion (Imber 1999). Foraging range During incubation, breeding birds from Campbell Island foraged mostly within 1,250 km of the colonies over shallow (<1500 m deep) shelf and shelf break waters of the Campbell Plateau north to southern New Zealand and over the Chatham Rise, commuting directly to locally productive sites (ACAP 2009).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 50 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 50 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): -0.767 - 7.284
  Nitrate (umol/L): 13.851 - 28.640
  Salinity (PPS): 33.654 - 34.115
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.773 - 8.188
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.240 - 1.909
  Silicate (umol/l): 5.034 - 75.155

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): -0.767 - 7.284

Nitrate (umol/L): 13.851 - 28.640

Salinity (PPS): 33.654 - 34.115

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.773 - 8.188

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.240 - 1.909

Silicate (umol/l): 5.034 - 75.155
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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The southern royal albatross spends most of its time soaring over the open oceans, and only comes to land to breed (5). Nesting typically occurs on tussock grassland slopes, ridges and plateaus (2).
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Trophic Strategy

Royal albatross are carnivorous. They eat mainly cephalopods (Moroteuthis ingens, Kondakovia longimana, Hisioteuthis atlantica), fish (Macruronus novaezelandiae), and some crustaceans. Due to their lack of maneuverability, an albatross rarely picks up prey in flight. Instead, they sit on the water and use a method known as surface-seizing. Occasionally, they make shallow plunges. Most of their hunting, particularly for squid, is done at night.

Animal Foods: fish; mollusks; aquatic crustaceans

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore , Molluscivore )

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Associations

Because of their generally solitary lifestyle and the wide expanse of territory they cover, royal albatross have little impact on their surroundings. Royal albatross are predators located at the top of the food chain. Due to the small population size of royal albatross, populations of their prey are left relatively unaffected.

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Due in part to their large size and solitary lifestyle, both in the air and on secluded islands, royal albatross have no known predators. Humans have been a threat in the past, but recent, stricter penalties for killing royal albatross have helped populations remain stable.

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Known prey organisms

Diomedea epomophora preys on:
Actinopterygii
Mollusca
Crustacea

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Elaborate displays are done by males and females to form pair-bonds. Actions like 'Bill-circling', 'Sky-pointing', 'Flank-touching' with the bill and the spreading of the wings are involved in courtship. These displays are typically accompanied by a variety of calls. This form of communal dancing usually takes place on land but on occasion it can occur at sea. Royal albatross are usually silent at sea but can become rather vocal when competing for food, especially around fish boats. Croaking, shrieking, and gargling sounds are the most common sounds made during competition for food. As a threat to intruders, a highly characteristic rattling sound can be produced by clappering the bill quickly and repeatedly.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Life Expectancy

Royal albatross are remarkably long-lived when considering that the vast majority of their lives are spent over the perilous southern oceans. The adult mortality rate is 3 percent per year. In the wild, a royal albatross was known to have lived to over 58 years. It is possible that some birds may reach an age of 80 years.

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
58 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
58.0 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 58 years (wild)
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Reproduction

Royal albatross pair for life. 'Divorce' is rare and typically only occurs after several failed breeding attempts, under normal conditions only death can split a pair. Royal albatross have extensive and varied courtship displays that include actions like 'Bill-circling', 'Sky-pointing', 'Flank-touching' with the bill, and full spreading of the wings. In many cases, these rituals are done and a pair is formed in the season prior to breeding. An elaborate courtship is unnecessary for birds that have bred together in the previous year. Previously mated pairs usually use the same nest-site as the year before. Typically, the male arrives a few days before the female. A few greeting ceremonies are performed upon the arrival of the female, and shortly thereafter, they breed. Breeding is biennial (occurs every two years), due in part to the long incubation period. As a result, there is no replacement egg laying, forcing a pair to wait until the following season to re-nest if their egg is lost.

Mating System: monogamous

Royal albatross reproduce once biennially, breeding starts in October. Without fail, only one egg is laid. Eggs weigh between 205 to 487 g, about 5 to 11 percent of the body weight of the mother. Incubation lasts 79 days. Chicks have white down and their coloration is similar to that of adults. Chicks fledge after about 240 days, at this point, the chick simply flies off on its own. Sexual maturity is reached in 9 to 11 years.

Breeding interval: Biennial

Breeding season: Breeding begins in October

Average eggs per season: 1.

Average time to hatching: 79 days.

Average fledging age: 240 days.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 9 to 11 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 9 to 11 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; oviparous

Having arrived to the nest-site first, the male defends the territory against other males and rebuilds or starts building a new nest while he waits for his partner. When the female arrives a few days later, the birds briefly display then copulate. Immediately afterwards, both return to sea where they feed and begin to build up a reserve of food. Both birds return to the nest shortly before the egg is laid. The female lays the egg then immediately retreats to the sea. The male is left to incubate the egg until the female returns, sometimes leaving the male without food or water for 2 to 3 weeks. When the female returns to the nest, the male leaves to find food and regain his strength. This pattern continues until the egg hatches and the chick no longer needs to be brooded, this usually takes six weeks. At this point, both parents leave to find food but return daily to feed their chick a meal of partly digested fish, squid, and stomach oil that adults produce during the ordinary digestion of their food. The oil is rich in fats and helps provide the nutrients necessary for the chick to grow despite long spans without food. The growing chick wanders around the nest-site between visits, but must return to the nest to be fed. After a few brief failures, the chick simply flies away to start life on its own.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; altricial ; pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female)

  • del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, J. Sargatal. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diomedea epomophora

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Populations declined rapidly in the past due to less stringent requirements on fishing practices. Recent bans in New Zealand waters have required trawlers to replace outdated equipment and implement new, safer methods. Populations have stabilized as a result of these measures. Today, populations are estimated to be 10,000 to 20,000 pairs. Royal albatross are listed as 'Vulnerable' by the IUCN.

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable

  • IUCN, 2003. "2003 IUCN Red List of Endangered Species" (On-line). Accessed April 19, 2004 at http://www.redlist.org/.
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
D2

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Taylor, J. & Butchart, S.

Contributor/s
Moore, P., Robertson, C., Stahl, J.-C., Taylor, G. & Walker, K.

Justification
Although current population trends are assumed to be stable, this species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a very small range, breeding on four islands, although largely confined to just one, with a fifth mainland population comprising only hybrid birds. It is therefore highly susceptible to stochastic effects and human impacts.

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Status

Classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List 2006 (1), and listed on Appendix II of CMS (3) and Annex 1 of ACAP (4).
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Population

Population
The Campbell population is estimated at 7,855 breeding pairs between 2004-2008 (ACAP 2009). In 2001, 69 pairs were present on Enderby (Childerhouse et al. 2003), and c.20 breed on Auckland and Adams Islands combined (Croxall and Gales 1998). An estimate of c7,900 annual breeding pairs is equivalent to c.27,200 mature individuals, based on the ratio used by Croxall and Gales (1998).


Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
The population is thought to be recovering after human predation, farming and introduced mammals caused reductions in all populations until the 1930s, extirpating the Enderby and Auckland Islands populations by the late 1800s (Heather and Robertson 1997). Pigs and cats still take eggs and chicks on Auckland Island. On Campbell and Enderby Dracophyllum scrub is spreading, possibly due to climatic warming, and may reduce breeding habitat. A possible decrease in the population during the 1970s - early 1980s coincided with the peak in long-line fishing in the New Zealand region (Moore and Bettany 2005). Southern Royal Albatross are caught by longliners and trawlers in Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans, and off the east and west coasts of South America (Taylor 2000, Moore and Bettany 2005, ACAP 2009). Although reported bycatch numbers of D. epomophora in New Zealand fisheries have been relatively low, with 14 individuals observed killed in surface longlines and trawls between 1998 and 2004, observer coverage in this period was less than 5% of total fishing effort. Similarly, mortalities observed in the Argentine longline fleet along the Patagonian Shelf between 1999 and 2001 comprised on average 1.4% (0-6.1%) of the 901 seabirds caught in total. However, the estimated annual seabird bycatch in this fishery may be in the thousands (ACAP 2009).

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Historically, humans and mammals introduced to previously predator-free islands have caused massive declines in all southern royal albatross populations. Pigs and cats still pose a threat on Auckland Island, where they continue to predate on eggs and chicks. On Campbell and Enderby, Dracophyllum scrub is spreading, possibly due to climatic warming, and may reduce breeding habitat (2). The vast majority of the breeding population now remains on Campbell Island, and although considered stable there, such heavy reliance on this single island leaves the species in a particularly vulnerable position. Albatrosses are notoriously susceptible to becoming entangled in fishing equipment whilst feeding on baited hooks or catch, and this species is no exception (9). The southern royal albatross is frequently caught by Japanese longliners in the high seas and smaller numbers are killed by fisheries in waters off New Zealand, south-western Australia and Tasmania (2).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II and ACAP Annex 1. Cattle and sheep have been removed from Campbell, and cattle, rabbits and mice have been eradicated from Enderby. Rats were eradicated from Campbell in 2001, and an expedition in 1993 found no evidence of them persisting (P. Moore in litt. 2003). Almost 36,000 birds have been banded on Campbell since the 1940s, but since 2006 bands are being removed, except in two study colonies. Two study areas on Campbell were monitored annually in the 1990s (P. Moore in litt. 2003). All islands are nature reserves and, in 1998, were declared a World Heritage Site.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Census the Campbell and Enderby colonies at 10-year intervals. Monitor vegetation change on Campbell and Enderby and assess its effect on habitat availability. Eradicate pigs and cats from Auckland Island (Taylor 2000).

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Conservation

The southern royal albatross is listed on Annex 1 of the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP), a multilateral agreement which seeks to conserve albatrosses and petrels by coordinating international activity to mitigate known threats to these magnificent seabirds (4), and is also listed on Appendix II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS), which aims to conserve migratory species throughout their range (3). Cattle, sheep and rats have been removed from Campbell Island, and rabbits and mice have been eradicated from Enderby (2). All the islands on which this species breeds are nature reserves and, in 1998, were declared a World Heritage Site (2). Recent legislation in New Zealand has required trawlers to replace outdated equipment and implement new, safer methods that are less likely to endanger albatrosses and other sea birds (6). However, longline fisheries continue to threaten albatross species around the globe, a problem that urgently needs to be addressed. Nevertheless, as long as the population on Campbell Island remains protected and free from potential predators, the southern royal albatross should continue to soar the Southern Ocean skies for many generations to come.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Because of their inclination to prey on the bait used by trawlers and other fishing boats, many royal albatross were killed in fishing lines and nets. Today, new, more costly methods have been developed and implemented to prevent harm to the birds.

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Their oceanic habits and isolated Southern Hemisphere range make royal albatross virtually inaccessible to humans. Because of their mastery of flight, royal albatross have gained worldwide admiration and respect and are sought out by birdwatchers. As a result, killing one for any reason is considered a serious offense.

Positive Impacts: ecotourism

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Wikipedia

Southern royal albatross

The southern royal albatross (Diomedea epomophora) is a large seabird from the albatross family. At an average wingspan of around 3 m (9.8 ft), it is the second largest albatross, behind the wandering albatross, although in mass the two species are similar in size.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

Albatrosses belong to Diomedeidae family and come from the Procellariiformes order, along with shearwaters, fulmars, storm petrels, and diving petrels. They share certain identifying features. First, they have nasal passages that attach to the upper bill called naricorns; the nostrils of the albatross are on the sides of the bill. The bills of Procellariiformes are also unique in that they are split into between seven and nine horny plates. Finally, they produce a stomach oil made up of wax esters and triglycerides that is stored in the proventriculus. This is used against predators as well as an energy rich food source for chicks and for the adults during their long flights.[3] It was once considered conspecific with the northern royal albatross (Diomedea sanfordi) as the royal albatross and the split into two species is almost universally accepted, for example by, BirdLife International,[4] Brooke,[5] and Robertson & Nunn.[6] Clements still does not recognize the split,[7] and the SACC has recognized the need for a proposal.[8]

Etymology[edit]

In flight
In flight

Diomedea epomophora breaks into Diomedea referring to Diomedes, whose companions turned to birds.[9]

Description[edit]

The southern royal albatross has a length of 112–123 cm (44–48 in)[10] and a mean weight of 8.5 kg (19 lb). At Campbell Island, 11 males were found to have a mean mass of 10.3 kg (23 lb) and 7 females were found to have a mean mass of 7.7 kg (17 lb), thus may be heavier on average than most colonies of wandering albatross.[2] Males are about 2 to 3 kg (4.4 to 6.6 lb) heavier than females. Average wingspan has been reported from 2.9 to 3.28 m (9.5 to 10.8 ft), with an upper limit of about 3.51 m (11.5 ft). The wandering albatross can exceed this species in maximum size and averages slightly larger in linear dimensions if not bulk, but the two species are close enough in dimensions that size cannot be used to distinguish between them.[11][12][13] The juvenile has a white head, neck, upper mantle, rump, and underparts. There are black speckles on the mantle, and they have dark brown or black wings with white flecks on coverts. Their tail is white except for the black tip as is the under-wing. Young birds soon lose the black on their tail and backs. White appears on the upperwing gradually, as speckles starting from the leading edge. All ages have a pink bill with black on the cutting edge on the upper mandible, and the legs are flesh. Young birds with all dark upperwings can be hard to differentiate from the northern royal albatross. There are clear but subtle differences compared to the wandering albatross, with the southern having a clean black and white appearance, lacking the peach neck spot often found on the wandering albatross. Most wandering albatrosses have dark feathers in the tail and crown and the white in this species expands from the middle of the wing, in larger blotches. The bill color is also slightly paler, as well as the dark cutting edge along the middle. The average life span is 58 years.[14]

Range[edit]

Breeding Population and Trends[10]
LocationPopulationDateTrend
Campbell Islands8,200-8,600 pair1997Stable
Enderby Island69 pair2001Stable
Auckland Island & Adams Island20 pair2001Stable
Total28,000-29,5001997Stable

Most of the royal albatross population is found between 30°s and 45°s.[15] The majority of the world's population of southern royal albatrosses nest on the rat free Subantarctic Campbell Island, around 8,200 to 8,600 pairs. There are smaller colonies on Adams Island and Auckland Island in the Auckland Islands, 20 pairs combined, and 69 pairs on Enderby Island and some sanfordi X epomophora hybrids at the northern royal albatross colony on the Otago Peninsula in New Zealand. They range along the southern oceans concentrating on the west and east coast of southern South America, and also in the waters surrounding New Zealand.[10]

Behavior[edit]

Feeding[edit]

The southern royal albatross eats squid and fish, with smaller amounts of carrion, crustaceans, and salps.[10] Its foraging activities normally take place within a 1250 km radius of their breeding site.[16]

Reproduction[edit]

Southern Royal Albatrosses beaking - SE Tasmania.jpg

They prefer to nest on tussock grassland, plateaus, or ridges, and will lay one egg biennially. This will normally take place in November or December. Both parents will incubate the egg, and rear the young. There is very low mortality rates of the layed eggs once the parents settle in.[17] When feeding the young they will range south to the Campbell Plateau and north to the Chatham Rise.[10]

Conservation[edit]

The IUCN classifies this bird as vulnerable,[1] with an occurrence range of 63,400,000 km2 (24,500,000 sq mi) and a breeding range of 750 km2 (290 sq mi), with a total estimated population of between 28,000 and 29,500 (1997). As a top-tier organism in its natural habitat, it has very few predators but major fishing industries are a huge problem for all albatross species among other seabirds.[18]

The population is recovering from its severe downward spiral in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. By the 1880s, this albatross was extirpated from Auckland Island and Enderby Island. Pigs and cats are still a problem, as they take chicks and eggs, on Auckland Island. Longline fishing is a major problem and a possible emerging threat is Dracophyllum, a scrub that is taking away from their nesting range.[10]

Gallery[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Diomedea epomophora". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses, 2nd Edition by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (2008), ISBN 978-1-4200-6444-5.
  3. ^ Double, M. C. (2003)
  4. ^ Lee, James (2008)
  5. ^ Brooke, R. (2004)
  6. ^ Robertson, C. J. R. & Nunn, G. B. (1998)
  7. ^ Clements, J. (2007)
  8. ^ Remsen Jr., C. J. (2008)
  9. ^ Gotch, A. F. (1995)
  10. ^ a b c d e f BirdLife International (2008)
  11. ^ Brooke, Michael, Albatrosses and Petrels across the World. Oxford University Press (2004), ISBN 978-0-19-850125-1
  12. ^ Wood, Gerald (1983). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9. 
  13. ^ Harrison, Peter, Seabirds: An Identification Guide. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (1991), ISBN 978-0-395-60291-1
  14. ^ LaGosh, J. (2004). Diomedea epomophora. Retrieved from http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Diomedea_epomophora.html
  15. ^ Robertson, C. J. R., & Kinsky, F. C. (1972). The dispersal movements of the royal albatross (Diomedea epomophora). Notornis, 19(4), 289-301.
  16. ^ Waugh, S., Troup, C., Filippi, D., & Weimerskirch, H. (2002). Foraging zones of Southern Royal albatrosses. The Condor, 104(3), 662-667.
  17. ^ Dilks, P. J., & Wilson, P. R. (1979). Feral sheep and cattle and royal albatrosses on Campbell Island; population trends and habitat changes. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 6(1), 127-139.
  18. ^ Sullivan, B. J., Reid, T. A., & Bugoni, L. (2006). Seabird mortality on factory trawlers in the Falkland Islands and beyond. Biological Conservation, 131(4), 495–504.

References[edit]

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