DistributionRead full entry
Range DescriptionCiconia episcopus is found patchily across South Asia and South East Asia. Its range extends from Pakistan (where it is now very rare) through India, lowland Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and south-east through Myanmar, Thailand, Lao, Cambodia, Viet Nam, Peninsular Malaysia, the Philippines, and Sumatra and Java, Indonesia (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Grimmett et al. 1998, Robson 2008). Non-breeders have also been observed in Iran (Porter and Aspinal 2010). Steep declines have been noted in South-East Asia, including in Laos, Thailand and Cambodia (J. W. Duckworth in litt. 2013, R. J. Timmins in litt. 2013, F. Goes in litt. 2014). In the Philippines, the species appears to have become extirpated or near-extirpated from Luzon (A. Jensen in litt. 2013). The population in South Asia appears to be stable overall (Praveen J. in litt. 2014, S. Subramanya in litt. 2014), with some evidence of local declines (H. Baral and C. Inskipp in litt. 2014).