IUCN threat status:

Least Concern (LC)


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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDING: northern California, southern Idaho, Kansas, lower Mississippi Valley, and Gulf and Atlantic coasts north to Maine, south through Mexico and the Antilles to South America (to southern Chile and central Argentina). See Spendelow and Patton (1988) for information on the distribution and abundance of coastal U.S. breeding colonies. NON-BREEDING: northern California, southwestern Arizona, Gulf Coast, and South Carolina southward through the breeding range. In the U.S., areas with the highest densities in winter include the Gulf Coast along the Texas-Louisiana border, the mouth of the Mississippi River, the lower Colorado River, and Florida (Root 1988). Wanders irregularly outside usual range; rare straggler to Hawaii.


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