- Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, B.L. Sullivan, C. L. Wood, and D. Roberson. 2012. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.7. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/downloadable-clements-checklist
Habitat and Ecology
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
CITES Appendix II. Santa Fe National Park was established in 2001 and protects part of the species's range, but it still has inadequate staff and resources (G. Angehr in litt. 2007). The Panama Audubon Society has opened discussions with communities in the Ngobe-Bugle Comarca (Indigenous Homeland) with regard to protection of the region of Cerro Santiago (G. Angehr in litt. 2007). Cerro Hoya National Park protects the possible population on the Azuero Peninsula (Wege and Long 1995, Angehr and JordÃ¡n 1998). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to clarify its actual distribution and abundance. Study its habitat requirements. Determine the identity of the birds on the Azuero Peninsula. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation within its range. Establish a protected area around Cerro Santiago and neighbouring peaks (G. Angehr in litt. 2007).
It is found only in Panama.
Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical high-altitude shrubland.
It is threatened by habitat loss.