The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. Mullarney, K., Svensson, L., Zetterstrom, D., & Grant, P.J. (1999) Collins Bird Guide. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, London.
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2. UK Biodiversity Action Plan (1995). See External link.
  • 2011. Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource, 2011.01.03
  • 2011. IOC World Bird List, Master List v2.9
  • 2011. AOU Check-List (08-2011)
  • 3. RSPB cormorant information (July 2002). External link.
  • 4. Greenoak, F. (1979) All the birds of the air; the names, lore and literature of British birds. Book Club Associates, London.
  • 5. The Moran Committee. Cormorants: The facts (July 2002) External link.
  • 6. Lack, P. (1986) The Atlas of Wintering Birds in Britain and Ireland. T. & A. D. Poyser Ltd, Calton.
  • 7. National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary (July 2002) External link.
  • 8. RSPB (2003) The population status of birds in the UK External link.
  • 9. RSPB (2003) Pers. comm.
  • Adriaens, P. (2014). Phalacrocorax carbo (Linnaeus, 1758). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Anonyme (à paraître). Cahiers d'habitats Natura 2000. Cahiers Oiseaux - Bibliographie générale, 4 pages - (version provisoire de 2008), Ministère en charge de l'écologie - MNHN.
  • Anonyme (à paraître). Cahiers d'habitats Natura 2000. Connaissance et gestion des habitats et des espèces d'intérêt communautaire. Cahiers Oiseaux (version provisoire de 2008), Ministère en charge de l'écologie - MNHN.
  • B., Bruun., & S. Baha El Din.   (1985).  Common Birds of Egypt, The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo..  
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166
  • BirdLife International 2008, 2008. "Phalacrocorax carbo" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. Accessed July 09, 2009 at
  • BirdLife International 2012. Phalacrocorax carbo
  • Blumenbach, Unknown,Abbild. Naturhist. Gegenst., 17983.
  • Brown, L.H., E.K. Urban & K. Newman (1982). The Birds of Africa, Volume I. Academic Press, London.
  • Christian RR, Luczkovich JJ (1999) Organizing and understanding a winter’s seagrass foodweb network through effective trophic levels. Ecol Model 117:99–124
  • EURING list of longevity records for European birds (Online source) External link.
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names
  • Hall SJ, Raffaelli D (1991) Food-web patterns: lessons from a species-rich web. J Anim Ecol 60:823–842
  • Hatch, J., K. Brown, G. Hogan, R. Morris. 2000. Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). The Birds of North America Online, 553: 1-20. Accessed June 16, 2009 at
  • Huxham M, Beany S, Raffaelli D (1996) Do parasites reduce the chances of triangulation in a real food web? Oikos 76:284–300
  • INPN 2003-2014. Fiche descriptive de : Phalacrocorax carbo (Linnaeus, 1758), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. Service du Patrimoine naturel.
  • Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp. External link.
  • Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10,Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 17581: 133.
  • Linnaeus, Unknown,Syst.nat, 17581: 460-460.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Phalacrocorax carbo
  • TOURENNE Murielle, COROLLA Jean-Pierre, FEY Laurent, in : DORIS, 16/2/2012 : Phalacrocorax carbo (Linnaeus, 1758),
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
  • Zheng Zuoxin et al., Unknown, 1997.
  • 郑作新等, 《中国动物志》鸟纲第一卷,北京:科学出版社, 1997: 1-199.
  • 郑作新等, 中国动物志.鸟纲第一卷.潜鸟目.鸊鷉目.鹱形目.鹈形目.鹳形目,中国动物志.鸟纲第一卷.潜鸟目.鸊鷉目.鹱形目.鹈形目.鹳形目, 1997.


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