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Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS in North Atlantic on islands off Newfoundland and Massachusetts (Penikese Island), and from Iceland and the Faroe and Shetland islands south around most of British Isles to western France, in Madeira and Azores, around much of Mediterranean; formerly Bermuda. See Storey and Lien (1985) for account of first North American breeding colony (Newfoundland). RANGES at sea in Atlantic from breeding grounds south to Argentina and southern Africa, rarely to Australian and New Zealand region (Sibley and Monroe 1990). See Buckley and Buckley (1984) for a discussion of status in the eastern U.S.

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Caribbean; North America
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Range Description

The Manx Shearwater breeds in the north Atlantic, with major colonies on the Atlantic coasts of the United Kingdom and Ireland. Colonies are also present on Iceland, islets off Massachusetts (USA) and Newfoundland (Canada), as well as on the Azores, Portugal and the Canary Islands, Spain. It undegoes transequatorial migration, expanding the range in winter to include the Atlantic coast of South America below the equator and the south-west coast of South Africa1.

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Range

Breeds n Atlantic; ranges to Argentina and s African waters.

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North Atlantic; North America, Iceland, to north of Scandinavian countries. South to eastern South America, and to southern tip of South Africa.
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 34 cm

Weight: 453 grams

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Length: 30-38 cm, Wingspan: 76-89 cm
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Diagnostic Description

In the northeastern Pacific, distinguished from similar species by the all-white undertail coverts, decidedly short tail, whiter underwings, and distinctive crescent-shaped "ear-surround" facial pattern--if good views can be obtained (Roberson, 1996, Birding 28(1):18-33).

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Pelagic. Eggs are laid in burrows on turfy islands, on cliffs of rocky islands, and occasionally inland in mountainous regions (AOU 1983). Both sexes dig new burrow or refashion old one (Terres 1980).

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This marine species is mainly found on waters over the continental shelf, feeding mainly on small shoaling fish but also on some squid, crustaceans and offal. Prey is caught mainly by pursuit-plunging and pursuit-diving, either alone or in small flocks. Breeding starts in March, forming colonies on coastal or offshore islands, nesting in burrows (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 35136 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 16259 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 0.625 - 28.632
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.038 - 10.807
  Salinity (PPS): 30.572 - 36.728
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.637 - 8.121
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.043 - 0.809
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.565 - 7.273

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 0.625 - 28.632

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.038 - 10.807

Salinity (PPS): 30.572 - 36.728

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.637 - 8.121

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.043 - 0.809

Silicate (umol/l): 0.565 - 7.273
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Open ocean and islands.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Migrates between breeding and nonbreeding areas.

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Breeds in northern hemisphere, travels to southern hemisphere for winter.
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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Eats small fishes, crustaceans, and squids, for which it sometimes swims underwater for short distances; may dive into water (Terres 1980).

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Small fish mainly, also squid and crustaceans.
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Animal / associate
fruitbody of Trechispora clancularis is associated with occupied burrow of Puffinus puffinus

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Population Biology

Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: Evidently active at sea at any hour but often rests on water in late afternoon (Palmer 1962).

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Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 49.7 years (wild) Observations: Maximum longevity from banding studies is 49.7 years (http://www.euring.org/data_and_codes/longevity.htm). There are also anecdotal reports, which could be true, of animals living over 50 years.
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Reproduction

Eggs are laid usually in April-May. Clutch size is 1. Incubation averages 51-53 days, by both sexes, change-over every 2-16 days. Parents desert young at about 60 days. Young first fly and depart nesting area at 70-75 days. Usually nests colonially.

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First breeds around 5-6 years old. Nests in burrows among colonies on islands. 1 egg, incubated by both partners for 47-55 days. Young hatchling is fed by both parents. Young shearwater leaves nest after about 68 days.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Puffinus puffinus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Puffinus puffinus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNAGCCTACTCATCCGTGCAGAACTCGGTCAACCCGGGACGCTCCTAGGTGATGATCAAATCTACAATGTAATTGTCACCGCCCATGCATTCGTAATAATCTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCCGTCATAATTGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGACTAGTTCCCCTCATAATCGGTGCCCCTGACATAGCATTTCCACGTATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGATTACTACCCCCATCCTTTCTCCTCCTATTAGCCTCATCTACAGTAGAAGCAGGAGCAGGCACAGGATGGACCGTATATCCCCCTCTAGCCGGCAACTTGGCTCATGCTGGAGCCTCAGTCGACCTAGCTATCTTCTCTCTTCATCTAGCAGGTGTATCCTCCATCCTAGGGGCAATCAACTTCATTACAACAGCCATCAACATAAAACCCCCAGCCCTATCACAATATCAAACCCCCCTATTCGTATGGTCCGTGCTCATTACTGCCGTCCTACTCCTACTCTCACTCCCAGTCCTCGCTGCAGGAATCACTATACTACTAACAGACCGAAATCTAAACACTACATTCTTTGNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N3B,N5N : N3B: Vulnerable - Breeding, N5N: Secure - Nonbreeding

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1B - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Status in Egypt

Regular passage visitor and winter visitor.

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No official conservation status.
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Population

Population
In Europe (which covers >95% of the breeding range), the breeding population is estimated to be 350,000-390,000 breeding pairs, equating to 1,050,000-1,170,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Brooke (2004) also estimated the global population to be at least 1,000,000 individuals.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Wikipedia

Manx shearwater

The Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) is a medium-sized shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae. The scientific name of this species records a name shift: Manx shearwaters were called Manks puffins in the 17th century. Puffin is an Anglo-Norman word (Middle English pophyn) for the cured carcasses of nestling shearwaters. The Atlantic puffin acquired the name much later, possibly because of its similar nesting habits.[2]

Description[edit]

Flying in Iceland

This bird is 30–38 cm long, with a 76–89 cm wingspan. It has the typically "shearing" flight of the genus, dipping from side to side on stiff wings with few wingbeats, the wingtips almost touching the water. This bird looks like a flying cross, with its wing held at right angles to the body, and it changes from black to white as the black upperparts and white undersides are alternately exposed as it travels low over the sea.

Taxonomy[edit]

At some time or another, every living one of the middle-sized species of Puffinus has been considered a subspecies of P. puffinus. The extant yelkouan shearwater and Balearic shearwater (Sangster et al. 2002), Hutton's shearwater,[citation needed] black-vented shearwater,[citation needed] Townsend's shearwater,[citation needed] the Hawaiian shearwater,[citation needed] and the fluttering shearwater[citation needed] are now considered good species. Of these, only the Hawaiian and possibly Townsend's shearwaters seem to be somewhat closely related to the Manx shearwater (Austin 1996); the former Puffinus puffinus "superspecies" has turned out to be a number of more or less distantly related lineages. However, including the extinct forms listed below, at least the Mediterranean taxa do apparently constitute a superspecies in their own right, and maybe the New Zealand ones also.

Also belonging to this complex seem to be several extinct species:

Undescribed remains found on Menorca may belong to an already-named or a new taxon; they are not from the Balearic shearwater (Alcover 2001) which is possibly closer to P. holeae than to any other known species, living or extinct.[citation needed] There also existed a Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene species known from Ibiza, Puffinus nestori, which may have been the direct ancestor of the Mediterranean shearwater (Heidrich et al. 1998).

The Atlantic forms are parapatric whereas the Pacific forms are sympatric or were not too long ago (Holdaway et al. 2001) and are reproductively isolated by a different circannual rhythm.

Range and habitat[edit]

The prefix Manx, meaning from the Isle of Man, originated owing to the once large colony of Manx shearwaters found on the Calf of Man (a small island just south of the Isle of Man). The species became extinct as a breeding bird there owing to the accidental introduction of rats from a shipwreck in the late 18th century; however a recent control program has resulted in Manx shearwaters returning to breed in small numbers.

Manx shearwater

Behaviour[edit]

Manx shearwaters are long-lived birds. A Manx shearwater breeding on Copeland Island, Northern Ireland, was as of 2003/04 the oldest known living wild bird in the world: ringed as an adult (at least 5 years old) in July 1953, it was retrapped in July 2003, at least 55 years old.[citation needed]

This is a gregarious species, which can be seen in large numbers from boats or headlands, especially on migration in autumn. It is silent at sea, but at night the breeding colonies are alive with raucous cackling calls.

Food and feeding[edit]

The Manx shearwater feeds on small fish (particularly herring, sprat and sardines), crustaceans, cephalopods and surface offal. The bird forages individually or in small flocks, and it makes use of feeding marine mammals and schools of predatory fish, which push prey species up to the surface. It does not follow boats.

Breeding[edit]

This species breeds in the North Atlantic, with major colonies on islands and coastal cliffs around Great Britain and Ireland. Manx shearwaters have nested along the Atlantic coast of northeastern North America since the 1970s and have expanded their breeding range southward into the Gulf of Maine, with a pair confirmed as nesting at Matinicus Rock.[3] They nest in burrows, laying one white egg which they visit only at night to avoid predation by large gulls. The islands are usually free of mammalian predators (but on the island of Rùm, about 4 percent of the chicks are preyed on by red deer that need extra calcium.[4]) They form lifelong monogamous pair-bonds.

Migration[edit]

Manx shearwaters migrate over 10,000 km to South America in winter, using waters off southern Brazil and Argentina,[5] so the 55-year-old bird mentioned above probably covered over a million km on migration alone (not counting day-to-day fishing trips). Their migration also appears to be quite complex, containing many stopovers and foraging zones throughout the Atlantic Ocean.[6] Ornithologist Chris Mead estimated that a bird ringed in 1957 (aged about 5 years) and still breeding on Bardsey Island off Wales in April 2002 had flown over 8 million km (5 million miles) during its 50-year life.[7]

Folklore[edit]

In the 19th-century Manx novel The Manxman by Sir Hall Caine, a reference is made to the satanic folklore surrounding the Manx shearwater, apparently due to its unusual call and dark appearance.

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Puffinus puffinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Lee & Haney (1996)
  3. ^ "Manx Shearwaters Decide National Wildlife Refuge is Perfect Place to Raise a Chick". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 8 September 2009. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  4. ^ R. W. Furness, R. W. (1988). "Predation on ground-nesting seabirds by island populations of red deer Cervus elaphus and sheep Ovis". Journal of Zoology 216 (3): 565–573. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1988.tb02451.x. 
  5. ^ T. G. Guilford, T; Meade, J; Willis, J; Phillips, RA; Boyle, D; Roberts, S; Collett, M; Freeman, R; Perrins, CM (2009). "Migration and stopover in a small pelagic seabird, the Manx shearwater 'Puffinus puffinus': insights from machine learning". Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276 (1660): 1215–1223. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1577. PMC 2660961. PMID 19141421. 
  6. ^ Freeman, R.; Dean, B.; Kirk, H.; Leonard, K.; Phillips, R. A.; Perrins, C. M.; Guilford, T. (2013). "Predictive ethoinformatics reveals the complex migratory behaviour of a pelagic seabird, the Manx Shearwater". Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10 (84): 20130279. doi:10.1098/rsif.2013.0279.  edit
  7. ^ Anon (18 April 2002). "Oldest bird clocks 5 million miles". CNN.com. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Alcover, Josep Antoni (2001): Nous avenços en el coneixement dels ocells fòssils de les Balears. Anuari Ornitològic de les Balears 16: 3–13. [Article in Catalan, English abstract] PDF fulltext
  • Austin, Jeremy J. (1996): Molecular Phylogenetics of Puffinus Shearwaters: Preliminary Evidence from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 6(1): 77–88. doi:10.1006/mpev.1996.0060 (HTML abstract)
  • Bull, John L.; Farrand, John Jr.; Rayfield, Susan & National Audubon Society (1977): The Audubon Society field guide to North American birds, Eastern Region. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. ISBN 0-394-41405-5
  • Heidrich, Petra; Amengual, José F. & Wink, Michael (1998): Phylogenetic relationships in Mediterranean and North Atlantic shearwaters (Aves: Procellariidae) based on nucleotide sequences of mtDNA. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 26(2): 145–170. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(97)00085-9 PDF fulltext
  • Holdaway, Richard N; Worthy, Trevor H. & Tennyson, Alan J. D. (2001): A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28(2): 119–187. PDF fulltext
  • Lee, D.S. & Haney, J.C. (1996): Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus), In: The Birds of North America, No. 257, (Poole, A. & Gill, F. eds). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC
  • Sangster, George; Knox, Alan G.; Helbig, Andreas J. & Parkin, David T. (2002): Taxonomic recommendations for European birds. Ibis 144(1): 153–159. doi:10.1046/j.0019-1019.2001.00026.x PDF fulltext
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Part of a superspecies complex with P. AURICULARIS, P. OPISTHOMELAS, P. GAVIA, and P. HUTTONI (AOU 1998). P. AURICULARIS (including NEWELLI) and P. OPISTHOMELAS are sometimes included in P. PUFFINUS. Sibley and Monroe (1990) commented that most of the five members of the complex probably should be treated as allospecies of a superspecies.

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