Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

The Auckland Island teal is mainly crepuscular to nocturnal (2), feeding on marine invertebrates, terrestrial amphipods, insect larvae and small molluscs in coastal pools or washed-up seaweed, and also on algae (6). Mated pairs travel and feed together (6) and maintain a territory (2), but may flock at traditional roosting sites when not feeding (7). During the breeding season, these flocks consist mainly of juveniles and non-paired adults (7). The breeding rate and annual productivity is low (6), with clutches of three to four eggs laid from late October, with the first broods appearing in December (2). The gestation period exceeds 30 days in the wild and is 30 to 35 days in captivity, with incubation performed by the female alone, while the male remains close and guards the female whilst feeding during nest relief. Both parents attend to and defend their young throughout the fledging period of 60 to 70 days and both sexes first breed at one year in captivity (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Endemic to the Auckland Island group, as its common name suggests, this flightless duck is one of the smallest of the Australasian teals, with greatly reduced wings (4) (5). Indeed, as one of the few remaining flightless birds in the world, the Auckland Island teal is a product of an island environment isolated from the rest of the world for more than 80 million years, and free from mammalian predators (4). The body and face are dark brown, with light and dark brown barring on the flanks and mottled chestnut tones on the breast (2) (6) (7). This cryptic colouration provides useful camouflage amongst the kelp fronds of their habitat (5). A fine white ring surrounds the eye, the bill is bluish-black, and the legs and feet slate grey. Breeding males possess an iridescent green sheen on the nape of their necks (2). Females are uniformly dark brown with a paler abdomen, and prominent white eye ring (2). Male calls are soft, high-pitched wheezy whistles, while females produce low quacks and growls (7).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

Anas aucklandica is endemic to New Zealand where it has permanent populations on Ewing, Enderby, Rose, Ocean, Adams, Disappointment and Dundas Islands in the Auckland Islands group. The total area of the seven islands is 113 km2 but, with the exception of Disappointment Island, birds were predominantly dispersed along island shorelines, but now occur throughout Adams Island at least (M. Williams in litt. 1999). It formerly bred on Auckland Island itself, where there are records from the 1940s. Three population estimates suggest that total numbers do not exceed 600 individuals, three indicate numbers of more than 1,000 (Moore and Walker 1991), and one suggests a population of more than 2,000 birds (Heather and Robertson 1997). The population appears to be stable.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

Islets off Auckland Islands.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

The Auckland Island teal is found in the Auckland Island group of New Zealand, with permanent populations on Ewing, Enderby, Rose, Ocean, Adams, Disappointment and Dundas Islands. Formerly bred on Auckland Island itself, where records exist up until the 1940s (6).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It primarily inhabits sheltered coastlines feeding on tideline resources, and uses dense coastal vegetation as escape and nesting cover. Pairs may retreat 100-200 m up small streams or to coastal pools for daytime cover, but forage on the shorelines after dark (M. Williams in litt. 1999). It feeds mostly in washed up seaweed for invertebrates, or in coastal pools, and also eats algae (Moore and Walker 1991). It has a low breeding rate and low annual productivity (Williams 1995).


Systems
  • Freshwater
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Primarily found along sheltered coastlines, using dense coastal vegetation as nesting cover (6). May retreat 100 to 200 m up small streams or to kelp beds and coastal pools for daytime cover, but forage on the shorelines after dark (5) (6).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
D1

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S.

Contributor/s
Hitchmough, R. & Williams, M.

Justification
This species is classified as Vulnerable because it has a very small population. The possibility of accidental introductions of invasive mammal species to the islands is a continuing concern, although the species occurs at enough locations to be relatively secure in the short term.


History
  • 2012
    Vulnerable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Classified as Vulnerable (VU D1) on the IUCN Red List 2004 (1), and listed on Appendix I of CITES (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
The species's population has been estimated at 600-2,000 mature individuals (Moore and Walker 1991, Heather and Robertson 1997).


Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
Introduced cats and pigs caused its extinction on Auckland Island. The accidental introduction of mammals to the remaining island populations could cause further local extinctions but it is unlikely to affect all sub-populations simultaneously (Moore and Walker 1991). The introduction of avian disease is also considered a significant potential threat (McClelland 1993).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Introduced cats and pigs caused the extinction of this bird from its former stronghold on Auckland Island, thereby dramatically reducing its numbers. Total remaining population estimates vary between 600 and 2,000 individuals, with this population currently considered relatively stable (6), as the bird occupies multiple offshore islands and islets that lack predators (4). However, the accidental introduction of mammals to the remaining island populations could easily cause further local extinctions and is an ongoing concern. The spread of avian disease to these island populations is also considered a significant potential threat (6).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I. Cattle, rabbits and mice have been eradicated from Enderby Island, and rabbits from Rose Island, leaving all teal-inhabited islands free of introduced mammals. The eradication of pigs and cats from Auckland Island is planned if resources can be sourced. The cost was estimated at $22 million in 2007 and it is not considered likely to take place in the near future (Hyndman 2011). The species has bred successfully in captivity as an aid to the Campbell Island Teal A. nesiotis recovery programme, but no dedicated captive-breeding population is proposed (M. Williams in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor wild populations. Promote the recovery of the species and the importance of predator-free island ecosystems. Promote the removal of predators from the Auckland Islands to allow for future reintroductions (McClelland 1993). Develop a structured captive breeding programme for future reintroductions and supplementation efforts.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

The Auckland Island teal's listing on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) prohibits its commercial trade across borders (6). The Auckland Islands are national nature reserves without human settlement (2). Cattle, rabbits and mice have been eradicated from Enderby Island, and rabbits from Rose Island, leaving all teal-inhabited islands free from introduced mammals. The eradication of pigs on Auckland Island is planned, paving the way for the bird's possible reintroduction to the mainland. Although known to breed successfully in captivity, no dedicated captive breeding programme has been proposed. Thus, future conservation efforts need to concentrate on captive-breeding programmes, combined with further removal or control of predators on Auckland Island, to allow for viable future reintroductions (6). Re-establishment across its full former range would certainly help ensure the future survival and prosperity of this remarkable flightless bird.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Auckland teal

The Auckland teal or Auckland Islands teal (Anas aucklandica) is a species of dabbling duck of the genus Anas that is endemic to Auckland Islands south of New Zealand. The species was once found throughout the Auckland Islands but is now restricted to the islands that lack introduced predators: Adams Island, Enderby Island, Disappointment Island and a few smaller islands. An old report of "the same flightless duck" on North East Island, The Snares group[2] most likely refers to a straggler.[3]

The Auckland teal is smaller and rarer than the brown teal of the main islands of New Zealand, a species with which it was once considered conspecific. The plumage is all over brown with a hint of green on the neck and a conspicuous white eyering. The female is slightly darker than the male. The wings are very small and the species has, like the related Campbell teal, lost the power of flight.[3]

The Auckland teal is mostly crepuscular to nocturnal, preferring to hide from predators (New Zealand falcons and skuas) during the day. The species inhabits a variety of habitats with the islands, including tussock fields, megaherb shrubland and coastal waters. It is carnivorous for the most part, feeding on marine invertebrates, insects, amphipods and other small Invertebrates. Auckland teal are territorial and seldom form flocks.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2013). "Anas aucklandica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Hector, J. (1896). "Dr Collins' testimony of a Snares Island duck" (PDF). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 29: 614. 
  3. ^ a b c Williams, M. (2005). "Auckland Islands Teal Anas aucklandica"". In Kear, J. Ducks, Geese and Swans of the World 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 579–581. ISBN 0-19-854645-9. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!