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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This is the largest tree frog native to the United States (Bartlett 1999). It is also the largest species in the genus (Duellman 1970). Males are about 76 mm and females reach a maximum of 90 mm. Chubby, stocky and short-legged (Savage 2002). Broad, flat head, indistinct from body. It is distinguished from other species by having a row of warts along the lower arm. Snout is rounded in dorsal view and bluntly truncate in lateral view. Large prominent eyes with horizontally ellipted pupils, and gold or silver irises. Distinct tympanum with a diameter about two-thirds of the eye. Dorsal skin is smooth and venter skin is granular (Lee 2000). Varies in color and pattern. The upper surface of S. baudinii can be a shade of green, tan or brown with a pattern of dark patches. Metachrosis is extreme and individuals can change colors depending on circumstances (although individuals tend to retain their dark blotches usually outlined by black) (Savage 2002). The vocal sac of breeding males is grey (Leenders 2001). Males have dark throats and females have light throats (Bartlett 1999). The undersurfaces are white to creamy yellow, usually devoid of markings (Lee 2000). A dark streak extends from the eye onto the shoulder region. There is also a vertical black bar that lies on the upper lip directly below the eye (Norman 1998). Similar to S. phaeota, the dorsal surface of the hind limbs have dark transverse bars (Leenders 2001). Has contrasting yellow and black mottling on the back of the thighs and especially in groin region (Norman 1998). Moderately large appendages. Toes are extensively webbed. Fingers are extensively webbed at bases (Savage 2002).

A Spanish-language species account can be found at the website of Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio).

  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • Leenders, T. (2001). A Guide to Amphibians And Reptiles of Costa Rica. Zona Tropical, Miami.
  • Duellman, W.E. (1970). The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Volume 1. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas.
  • Bartlett, R. D., and Bartlett, P. P. (1999). A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas.
  • Lee, J. C. (2000). A Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of the Maya World. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
  • Norman, D. (1998). Common amphibians of Costa Rica. Privately published, Heredia, Costa Rica.
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Distribution

Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Atlantic and Pacific versants, from the Rio Grande embayment in extreme southern Texas, U.S.A., southward to Costa Rica, including the Yucatan Peninsula. In the Pacific, from southern Sonora southward to central Costa Rica. Elevational range: 0-1,610 m.

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Range Description

This species geographic range is from the Atlantic and pacific versants, from the Rio Grande embayment in extreme southern Texas, U.S.A. southward to Costa Rica, including the Yucatan Peninsula. In the Pacific, it occurs from southern Sonora southward to central Costa Rica (0-1,610m asl).
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Distribution and Habitat

Humid, subhumid and semiarid lowlands and marginally on premontane slopes from southern Sonora, Mexico, and extreme southeastern Texas to southeastern and southwestern Costa Rica (Savage 2002). Probably more common in urban backyards with pools than in the wild. Occurs in the vicinity of canals, resacas, ponds, pools and other water retaining areas. In dry years these frogs are difficult to find (Bartlett 1999).

  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • Leenders, T. (2001). A Guide to Amphibians And Reptiles of Costa Rica. Zona Tropical, Miami.
  • Duellman, W.E. (1970). The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Volume 1. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas.
  • Bartlett, R. D., and Bartlett, P. P. (1999). A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas.
  • Lee, J. C. (2000). A Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of the Maya World. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
  • Norman, D. (1998). Common amphibians of Costa Rica. Privately published, Heredia, Costa Rica.
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 9 cm

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Type Information

Paratype for Smilisca baudinii
Catalog Number: USNM 25098
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Mirador, Veracruz, Mexico
  • Paratype: Cope, E. D. 1862. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 14 (9): 359.
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Holotype for Smilisca baudinii
Catalog Number: USNM 25097
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Mirador, Veracruz, Mexico
  • Holotype: Cope, E. D. 1862. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 14 (9): 359.
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Syntype for Smilisca baudinii
Catalog Number: USNM 3256
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Brownsville, Cameron, Texas, United States, North America
  • Syntype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Sierra Madre Oriental Pine-oak Forests Habitat

This taxon is found in the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests, which exhibit a very diverse community of endemic and specialized species of plants, mammals, reptiles and amphibians. These high mountains run north to south, beginning in the USA and ending in Mexico. The Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests are a highly disjunctive ecoregion, owing to the fact that they are present only at higher elevations, within a region with considerable expanses of lower elevation desert floor.

The climate is temperate humid on the northeastern slope, and temperate sub-humid on the western slope and highest portions of the mountain range. Pine-oak forest habitat covers most of the region, even though most of the primary forest has been destroyed or degraded. However, the wettest portions house a community of cloud forests that constitute the northernmost patches of this vegetation in Mexico. The forests grow on soils derived from volcanic rocks that have a high content of organic matter. The soils of lower elevations are derived from sedimentary rocks, and some of them are formed purely of limestone. In the northernmost portions of the ecoregion, the forests occur on irregular hummocks that constitute biological "islands" of temperate forest in the middle of the Chihuahuan Desert. To the south, from Nuevo León southward until Guanajuato and Queretaro, the ecoregion is more continuous along the mainstem of the Sierra Madre Oriental.

Dominant tree species include the pines: the endemic Nelson's Pine (Pinus nelsonii), Mexican Pinyon (P. cembroides), Smooth-bark Mexican Pine (P. pseudostrobus), and Arizona Pine (P. arizonica); and the oaks Quercus castanea and Q. affinis. In mesic environments, the most common species are P. cembroides, and Alligator Juniper (Juniperus deppeana), but in more xeric environments on the west slopes of the mountains, the endemic P. pinceana is more abundant. Gregg's Pine (P. greggii) and Jelecote Pine (P. patula) are endemic.

Many mammalian species wander these rugged hills. Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Puma (Puma concolor), Cliff Chipmunk (Tamias dorsalis), Collared Peccary (Tayassu tajacu), Coati (Nasua narica), Jaguar (Panthera onca) and Coyote (Canis latrans) are a few of the many diverse mammals that inhabit this ecoregion. Some threatened mammals found in the ecoregion are: Bolaños Woodrat (Neotoma palatina VU); Diminutive Woodrat (Nelsonia neotomodon NT), known chiefly from the western versant of the Sierra Madre; Chihuahuan Mouse (Peromyscus polius NT); and Mexican Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris nivalis EN).

A considerable number of reptilian taxa are found in the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests, including three endemic snakes: Ridgenose Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi); Fox´s Mountain Meadow Snake (Adelophis foxi); and the Longtail Rattlesnake (Crotalus stejnegeri VU), restricted to the central Sierra Madre. An endemic skink occurring in the ecoregion is the Fair-headed Skink (Plestiodon callicephalus). The Striped Plateau Lizard (Sceloporus virgatus) is endemic to the ecoregion. The Sonoran Mud Turtle (Kinosternon sonoriense VU) is found in the ecoregion and ranges from southwestern New Mexico south to northwestern Chihuahua.

The following anuran taxa occur in the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests: Red-spotted Toad (Anaxyrus punctatus); Cane Toad (Rhinella marina); Elegant Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne elegans); New Mexico Spadefoot Toad (Spea multiplicata); Sinaloa Toad (Incilius mazatlanensis); Pine Toad (Incilius occidentalis); Southwestern Toad (Anaxyrus microscaphus); Woodhouse's Toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii); Great Plains Narrowmouth Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea); Great Plains Toad (Anaxyrus cognatus); Plateau Toad (Anaxyrus compactilis); Texas Toad (Anaxyrus speciosus); Sonoran Desert Toad (Incilius alvarius), found only at lower ecoregion elevations here; Rana-ladrona Silbadora (Eleutherodactylus teretistes); Sabinal Frog (Leptodactylus melanonotus); Mexican Leaf Frog (Pachymedusa dacnicolor); Montezuma Leopard Frog (Lithobates montezumae); Yavapai Leopard Frog (Lithobates yavapaiensis); Northwest Mexico Leopard Frog (Lithobates magnaocularis); Bigfoot Leopard Frog (Lithobates megapoda), who generally breeds in permanent surface water bodies; Mexican Cascade Frog (Lithobates pustulosus); Tarahumara Frog (Lithobates tarahumarae VU); Western Barking Frog (Craugastor augusti); Lowland Burrowing Frog (Smilisca fodiens); Taylor's Barking Frog (Craugastor occidentalis); Blunt-toed Chirping Frog (Eleutherodactylus modestus VU), found only at the very lowest elevations of the ecoregion; Shiny Peeping Frog (Eleutherodactylus nitidus); California Chorus Frog (Pseudacris cadaverina); Rio Grande Frog (Lithobates berlandieri); Madrean Treefrog (Hyla eximia); Mexican Treefrog (Smilisca baudinii); Dwarf Mexican Treefrog (Tlalocohyla smithii); Canyon Treefrog (Hyla arenicolor); Northern Sheep Frog (Hypopachus variolosus); Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis). There are three salamanders found in the ecoregion: the endemic Sacramento Mountains Salamander (Aneides hardii), found only in very high montane reaches above 2400 meters; Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum); and the Tarahumara Salamander (Ambystoma rosaceum).

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Chihuahuan Desert Habitat

This taxon is found in the Chihuahuan Desert, which is one of the most biologically diverse arid regions on Earth. This ecoregion extends from within the United States south into Mexico. This desert is sheltered from the influence of other arid regions such as the Sonoran Desert by the large mountain ranges of the Sierra Madres. This isolation has allowed the evolution of many endemic species; most notable is the high number of endemic plants; in fact, there are a total of 653 vertebrate taxa recorded in the Chihuahuan Desert.  Moreover, this ecoregion also sustains some of the last extant populations of Mexican Prairie Dog, wild American Bison and Pronghorn Antelope.

The dominant plant species throughout the Chihuahuan Desert is Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata). Depending on diverse factors such as type of soil, altitude, and degree of slope, L. tridentata can occur in association with other species. More generally, an association between L. tridentata, American Tarbush (Flourensia cernua) and Viscid Acacia (Acacia neovernicosa) dominates the northernmost portion of the Chihuahuan Desert. The meridional portion is abundant in Yucca and Opuntia, and the southernmost portion is inhabited by Mexican Fire-barrel Cactus (Ferocactus pilosus) and Mojave Mound Cactus (Echinocereus polyacanthus). Herbaceous elements such as Gypsum Grama (Chondrosum ramosa), Blue Grama (Bouteloua gracilis) and Hairy Grama (Chondrosum hirsuta), among others, become dominant near the Sierra Madre Occidental. In western Coahuila State, Lecheguilla Agave (Agave lechuguilla), Honey Mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), Purple Prickly-pear (Opuntia macrocentra) and Rainbow Cactus (Echinocereus pectinatus) are the dominant vascular plants.

Because of its recent origin, few warm-blooded vertebrates are restricted to the Chihuahuan Desert scrub. However, the Chihuahuan Desert supports a large number of wide-ranging mammals, such as the Pronghorn Antelope (Antilocapra americana), Robust Cottontail (Sylvilagus robustus EN); Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Grey Fox (Unocyon cineroargentinus), Jaguar (Panthera onca), Collared Peccary or Javelina (Pecari tajacu), Desert Cottontail (Sylvilagus auduboni), Black-tailed Jackrabbit (Lepus californicus), Kangaroo Rats (Dipodomys sp.), pocket mice (Perognathus spp.), Woodrats (Neotoma spp.) and Deer Mice (Peromyscus spp). With only 24 individuals recorded in the state of Chihuahua Antilocapra americana is one of the most highly endangered taxa that inhabits this desert. The ecoregion also contains a small wild population of the highly endangered American Bison (Bison bison) and scattered populations of the highly endangered Mexican Prairie Dog (Cynomys mexicanus), as well as the Black-tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).

The Chihuahuan Desert herpetofauna typifies this ecoregion.Several lizard species are centered in the Chihuahuan Desert, and include the Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum); Texas Banded Gecko (Coleonyx brevis), often found under rocks in limestone foothills; Reticulate Gecko (C. reticulatus); Greater Earless Lizard (Cophosaurus texanus); several species of spiny lizards (Scelopoprus spp.); and the Western Marbled Whiptail (Cnemidophorus tigris marmoratus). Two other whiptails, the New Mexico Whiptail (C. neomexicanus) and the Common Checkered Whiptail (C. tesselatus) occur as all-female parthenogenic clone populations in select disturbed habitats.

Representative snakes include the Trans-Pecos Rat Snake (Bogertophis subocularis), Texas Blackhead Snake (Tantilla atriceps), and Sr (Masticophis taeniatus) and Neotropical Whipsnake (M. flagellum lineatus). Endemic turtles include the Bolsón Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus), Coahuilan Box Turtle (Terrapene coahuila) and several species of softshell turtles. Some reptiles and amphibians restricted to the Madrean sky island habitats include the Ridgenose Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi), Twin-spotted Rattlesnake (C. pricei), Northern Cat-eyed Snake (Leptodeira septentrionalis), Yarrow’s Spiny Lizard (Sceloporus jarrovii), and Canyon Spotted Whiptail (Cnemidophorus burti).

There are thirty anuran species occurring in the Chihuahuan Desert: Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Rana chircahuaensis); Red Spotted Toad (Anaxyrus punctatus); American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus); Canyon Treefrog (Hyla arenicolor); Northern Cricket Frog (Acris crepitans); Rio Grande Chirping Frog (Eleutherodactylus cystignathoides); Cliff Chirping Frog (Eleutherodactylus marnockii); Spotted Chirping Frog (Eleutherodactylus guttilatus); Tarahumara Barking Frog (Craugastor tarahumaraensis); Mexican Treefrog (Smilisca baudinii); Madrean Treefrog (Hyla eximia); Montezuma Leopard Frog (Lithobates montezumae); Brown's Leopard Frog (Lithobates brownorum); Yavapai Leopard Frog (Lithobates yavapaiensis); Western Barking Frog (Craugastor augusti); Mexican Cascade Frog (Lithobates pustulosus); Lowland Burrowing Frog (Smilisca fodiens); New Mexico Spadefoot (Spea multiplicata); Plains Spadefoot (Spea bombifrons); Pine Toad (Incilius occidentalis); Woodhouse's Toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii); Couch's Spadefoot Toad (Scaphiopus couchii); Plateau Toad (Anaxyrus compactilis); Texas Toad (Anaxyrus speciosus); Dwarf Toad (Incilius canaliferus); Great Plains Narrowmouth Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea); Great Plains Toad (Anaxyrus cognatus); Eastern Green Toad (Anaxyrus debilis); Gulf Coast Toad (Incilius valliceps); and Longfoot Chirping Toad (Eleutherodactylus longipes VU). The sole salamander occurring in the Chihuahuan Desert is the Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum).

Common bird species include the Greater Roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus), Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia), Merlin (Falco columbarius), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), and the rare Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus). Geococcyx californianus), Curve-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostra), Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata), Scott’s Oriole (Icterus parisorum), Black-throated Sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata), Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens), Worthen’s Sparrow (Spizella wortheni), and Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). In addition, numerous raptors inhabit the Chihuahuan Desert and include the Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) and the Elf Owl (Micrathene whitneyi).

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Comments: Lowlands and foothills; xerophytic vegetation and savannas in semiarid regions in north, humid evergreen forest in Caribbean lowlands of Central America; gardens with pools. Vicinity of ponds, pools, canals, and flooded fields (Bartlett and Bartlett 1999). Hides underground, under tree bark, in leaf axils, or in tree holes when inactive. Breeds in ponds.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It can be found in lowlands and foothills; xerophytic vegetation and savannahs in semiarid regions in north, humid evergreen forest in Caribbean lowlands of Central America; gardens with pools. It can also be found in the vicinity of ponds, pools, canals, and flooded fields (Bartlett and Bartlett, 1999). It hides underground, under tree bark, in leaf axils, or in tree holes when inactive. It breeds in ponds.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Migrates between breeding pools and nonbreeding terrestrial habitats.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Metamorphosed frogs eat various small invertebrates. Larvae eat organic debris, algae, and plant tissue.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: Inactive during dry spells in northern part of range.

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Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 6.3 years (captivity)
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Reproduction

Breeding season coincides with rainfall.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Smilisca baudinii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 38
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Moderate to broad.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Georgina Santos-Barrera, Geoffrey Hammerson, Gerardo Chaves, Larry David Wilson, Federico Bolaños, Paulino Ponce-Campos

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
It is widespread and abundant in Middle America.

Population Trend
Stable
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

During dry seasons S. baudinii seeks refuge in tree holes, outer sheaths of banana plants, or under bark. When attacked by a predator, both sexes emit high-pitched distress calls with their mouths wide open (Savage 2002). Their mating call consists of a series of short, explosive "wonk-wonk-wonk" notes. Call groups are spaced 15 seconds to several minutes apart. On average notes last 0.11 seconds. The two frequencies emphasized are from 350Hz and 2500Hz. S.baudinii call in duets (Duellman 1970). Nocturnal and aboreal frog. Uses shallow temporary bodies of water as breeding sites (Savage 2002). Usually breeds from June to October but in the more humid Caribbean lowlands, this frog appears to have a longer breeding season. (Duellman 1970). Males will usually call from the edge of water areas. Amplexus is axillary and takes place in the shallow waters. Females lay 2,500-3,500 eggs in a surface film. The eggs are black and cream in color and are 1.3 mm in diameter (1.5 mm including the vitelline membrane). Metamorphosis takes place 14-20 days after fertilization. Metamorphs are 12-15.5 mm in standard length (Savage 2002).

  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • Leenders, T. (2001). A Guide to Amphibians And Reptiles of Costa Rica. Zona Tropical, Miami.
  • Duellman, W.E. (1970). The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Volume 1. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas.
  • Bartlett, R. D., and Bartlett, P. P. (1999). A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas.
  • Lee, J. C. (2000). A Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of the Maya World. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
  • Norman, D. (1998). Common amphibians of Costa Rica. Privately published, Heredia, Costa Rica.
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Threats

Comments: This is a well preserved species that can survive even associated to human settlements and altered habitats.

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Major Threats
This is a well-preserved species that can survive even associated with human settlements and altered habitats.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Although S. Baudinii seems to be able to adapt well to human impact, it is possible that development has reduced populations. Some historical peripheral populations have not been seen in a decade or more. This is a protected species by the state of Texas (Bartlett 1999).

  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • Leenders, T. (2001). A Guide to Amphibians And Reptiles of Costa Rica. Zona Tropical, Miami.
  • Duellman, W.E. (1970). The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Volume 1. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas.
  • Bartlett, R. D., and Bartlett, P. P. (1999). A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas.
  • Lee, J. C. (2000). A Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of the Maya World. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
  • Norman, D. (1998). Common amphibians of Costa Rica. Privately published, Heredia, Costa Rica.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species doesn't need any particular protection measure. It occurs in many protected areas.
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© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

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Wikipedia

Smilisca baudinii

The common Mexican tree frog, Smilisca baudinii, is a nocturnal species of tree frog whose native range extends from the Sonoran Desert and the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas[2] south to Costa Rica. Common names include Mexican tree frog, Baudin's tree frog and Van Vliet’s frog. They are usually found within lightly forested areas near permanent sources of water.

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Description

The common Mexican tree frog is generally brown-grey in color, with darker brown, irregular blotching. Its underside is typically a lighter grey or white. Its legs have distinctive dark banding.

Taxonomy

The species has numerous synonymous classifications due to disjunct populations, and was mistakenly redescribed on several different occasions by different field researchers.

Conservation

The common Mexican tree frog is considered to be a threatened species in the US state of Texas.[3] It has only been reported in a few counties, and no estimates of its actual population count have been made.

References

  1. ^ Santos-Barrera et al. (2004). Smilisca baudinii. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12 May 2006. Database entry includes a range map and justification for why this species is of least concern
  2. ^ "Smilisca baudinii Mexican Treefrog". Herps of Texas. University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 2010-04-27. 
  3. ^ "Mexican Treefrog (Smilisca baudinii)". Wildlife Fact Sheets. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Retrieved 2010-04-27. 
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