Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Males 91-103 mm, females 111-119 mm. The dorsum is dark green and the belly varies from white to yellow-white or cream. There are sparse white spots with dark frames on the lower lips, chest and front legs, and these are more dense on the flanks and hind legs. Fingers are transparent brown with large green adhesive discs. A prominent gland extends from behind the eye over the tympanum. The iris is dark gray.

Similar species: Phyllomedusa tarsius differs by having a red-orange iris with black reticulations, and by having brown first and second fingers with white tips. Phyllomedusa vaillanti differs by having purple coloration on the sides and belly, adhesive discs on the fingers that are orange or dark purple, and a silvery-gray iris.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in the Amazon Basin in Venezuela (Amazonas and Bolívar states), Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and the Guianas. It also occurs in the Cerrado habitat of Manhao state, Brazil. It has been recorded from 0-800m asl.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution and Habitat

Occurs throughout the Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke in Brazil, and is frequently found near large ponds.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This is a nocturnal tree frog. It has been found calling from the limbs of trees in tropical rainforest at heights of more than 2m above the water in a forest pond (Duellman 1997). Gorzula and Señaris (1999) reported a leaf-nest found about 2m above a forest pool. Tadpoles then develop in temporary waterbodies. They are also found in gallery forest in Cerrado.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 10.3 years (captivity)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes

Source: AnAge

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Phyllomedusa bicolor

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Claudia Azevedo-Ramos, Enrique La Marca

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
It is common throughout its range.

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

The species is arboreal and nocturnal. Males usually call from high trees, and descend with the female to construct nests 1- 3 m above ponds. Reproduction occurs throughout the year in ponds near to, or far from, streams, with a peak from November to May (rainy season). The females deposit about 600 unpigmented eggs in a gelatinous mass in leaf nests hanging over ponds. The leaves are joined or folded with the aid of the male. After 8-10 days, the tadpoles hatch and fall into the water, where they complete development until metamorphosis.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
There are very few threats through its wide range, though it is probably impacted locally by very severe habitat loss, such as clear-cutting. It might benefit from road cuts through forest where individuals congregate to reproduce. There is currently an increased interest in the toxic compounds in the skin of this frog (which is used for hunting practices for several tribes of Amazonia). This might increase harvesting effort in the future, but at the moment, such utilisation is not considered to constitute a threat to the species. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species' distribution encompasses several protected areas.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Giant leaf frog


The giant leaf frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor, also known as Kambo, Kambô, Cambô, and Sapo Verde, is a hylid frog.

Distribution[edit]

It is found throughout the Amazon Rainforest of northern Bolivia, western and northern Brazil, southeastern Colombia, eastern Peru, southern and eastern Venezuela, and the Guianas. Occasionally, it is also found in the riparian forest area of the Cerrado, a vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil.

The IUCN endangered species database lists them in the "Least Concern species" category for now, in view of their current wide distribution and large population.

Description[edit]

The giant leaf frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor, is nocturnal and hunts small insects, which explains its arboreal locomotion. It has been found emitting its territorial or mating "song" in trees in tropical humid forests at heights greater than 2 metres (6.6 ft) above water near rainforest waterways.[2] Biologists report finding leaf-nests of this species approximately 2 metres (6.6 ft) above forest pools.[3] When the eggs hatch from these nests, the tadpoles fall into the water, where they continue the development into adult frogs. Tadpoles develop in mass in seasonal wetlands. They are also found in riparian forest areas of the Cerrado. The skin secretion of the frog contains deltorphin, deltorphin I, deltorphin II and dermorphin.[4][5][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Claudia Azevedo-Ramos, Enrique La Marca (2010). "Phyllomedusa bicolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 October 2013. 
  2. ^ (Duellman 1997)
  3. ^ Gorzula and Señaris (1999)
  4. ^ Erspamer V, Melchiorri P, Falconieri-Erspamer G, et al. (July 1989). "Deltorphins: a family of naturally occurring peptides with high affinity and selectivity for delta opioid binding sites". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86 (13): 5188–92. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.13.5188. PMC 297583. PMID 2544892. 
  5. ^ Melchiorri P, Negri L (1996). "The dermorphin peptide family". Gen. Pharmacol. 27 (7): 1099–107. doi:10.1016/0306-3623(95)02149-3. PMID 8981054. 
  6. ^ Amiche M, Delfour A, Nicolas P (1998). "Opioid peptides from frog skin". EXS 85: 57–71. doi:10.1007/978-3-0348-8837-0_4. PMID 9949868. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!