Males 91-103 mm, females 111-119 mm. The dorsum is dark green and the belly varies from white to yellow-white or cream. There are sparse white spots with dark frames on the lower lips, chest and front legs, and these are more dense on the flanks and hind legs. Fingers are transparent brown with large green adhesive discs. A prominent gland extends from behind the eye over the tympanum. The iris is dark gray.
Similar species: Phyllomedusa tarsius differs by having a red-orange iris with black reticulations, and by having brown first and second fingers with white tips. Phyllomedusa vaillanti differs by having purple coloration on the sides and belly, adhesive discs on the fingers that are orange or dark purple, and a silvery-gray iris.
Distribution and Habitat
Occurs throughout the Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke in Brazil, and is frequently found near large ponds.
Habitat and Ecology
Life History and Behavior
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Phyllomedusa bicolor
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 2004Least Concern
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
The species is arboreal and nocturnal. Males usually call from high trees, and descend with the female to construct nests 1- 3 m above ponds. Reproduction occurs throughout the year in ponds near to, or far from, streams, with a peak from November to May (rainy season). The females deposit about 600 unpigmented eggs in a gelatinous mass in leaf nests hanging over ponds. The leaves are joined or folded with the aid of the male. After 8-10 days, the tadpoles hatch and fall into the water, where they complete development until metamorphosis.
Giant leaf frog
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It is found throughout the Amazon Rainforest of northern Bolivia, western and northern Brazil, southeastern Colombia, eastern Peru, southern and eastern Venezuela, and the Guianas. Occasionally, it is also found in the riparian forest area of the Cerrado, a vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil.
The giant leaf frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor, is nocturnal and hunts small insects, which explains its arboreal locomotion. It has been found emitting its territorial or mating "song" in trees in tropical humid forests at heights greater than 2 metres (6.6 ft) above water near rainforest waterways. Biologists report finding leaf-nests of this species approximately 2 metres (6.6 ft) above forest pools. When the eggs hatch from these nests, the tadpoles fall into the water, where they continue the development into adult frogs. Tadpoles develop in mass in seasonal wetlands. They are also found in riparian forest areas of the Cerrado. The skin secretion of the frog contains deltorphin, deltorphin I, deltorphin II and dermorphin.
- Claudia Azevedo-Ramos, Enrique La Marca (2010). "Phyllomedusa bicolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- (Duellman 1997)
- Gorzula and Señaris (1999)
- Erspamer V, Melchiorri P, Falconieri-Erspamer G, et al. (July 1989). "Deltorphins: a family of naturally occurring peptides with high affinity and selectivity for delta opioid binding sites". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86 (13): 5188–92. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.13.5188. PMC 297583. PMID 2544892.
- Melchiorri P, Negri L (1996). "The dermorphin peptide family". Gen. Pharmacol. 27 (7): 1099–107. doi:10.1016/0306-3623(95)02149-3. PMID 8981054.
- Amiche M, Delfour A, Nicolas P (1998). "Opioid peptides from frog skin". EXS 85: 57–71. doi:10.1007/978-3-0348-8837-0_4. PMID 9949868.