Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species has a scattered distribution along the Queensland and New South Wales coastline, from Prosperine in the north to mid-eastern New South Wales. The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 220,000km2.
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Distribution and Habitat

Scattered distribution along the Queensland and New South Wales coastline, from Prosperine in the north to mid-eastern New South Wales.The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 219800 km2

  • Barker, J., Grigg, G. C., and Tyler, M. J. (1995). A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, New South Wales.
  • Davies, M. and McDonald, K.R. (1979). ''A study of intraspecific variation in the green tree frog Litoria chloris (Boulenger) (Hylidae).'' The Australian Zoologist, 20(2), 347-359.
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Geographic Range

Litoria chloris occupies coastal eastern Australian rainforests, from Queensland to New South Wales and as far north as Prosperine (Barker 1995).

Biogeographic Regions: australian (Native )

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Male Australian red-eyed tree frogs range from 5.4 to 6.2 cm, snout to vent length, while females are larger at 5.8 to 6.8 cm, snout to vent length. They have a smooth brilliant green dorsum and a lemon yellow granular ventral surface. There is little green coloring on the limbs, except for the upper forearms and the tibia; the rest of the limb is yellow. The thighs are deep purple, and L. chloris' irises are bright red-orange with a horizontal pupil. This tree frog has a typical Hylidae build with long, slender limbs and webbed hands and feet with large toe discs. A distinct tympanum is noticable (Hicks 1999).

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Usually associated with rainforest or wet sclerophyll forest. It spends much of its life high in the trees and is usually only seen in association with heavy rain when it descends to breed. Breeding is in spring and summer (October-February) after heavy rain when they congregate around flooded roadside ditches and dams in or near wet forest or along rainforest streams. Calling, amplexus and oviposition occurs in permanent and semi-permanent shallow pools in or beside streams, eggs are laid singly or in small clumps entangled in vegetation. Larvae are free swimming.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Australian red-eyed tree frogs occupy coastal wet sclerophyll and rainforests. They can also be encountered in flooded grasslands, near rivers, and in regrowth areas (Hicks 1999).

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

This frog lives in an inaccessible habitat for most of the year. Therefore, not much is known about their feeding habits. However, they are assumed to be insectivorous like other tree frogs that have been studied more intensively (Hicks 1999).

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Males call from October to February, during and after very heavy rain (Baker 1999). Theie advertisement call is a series of long "aaa-rk's" ending with a soft trill or chirp (Cogger 1992). Calling and amplexus takes place in shallow pools. The eggs can be laid in clumps or laid singly, entwined in the vegetation (Barker 1995). In captivity, Australian red-eyed tree frogs have been known to lay 5 clutches in a season with up to 500 eggs per clutch. The larvae can reach a maximum length of 7.4 cm and are light brown. In approximately 41 days, at 27 degrees Celsius, the tadpoles will reach metamorphosis (Hicks 1999).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Jean-Marc Hero, Ed Meyer, John Clarke

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2002
    Least Concern
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CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Population

Population
More information is needed.

Population Trend
Stable
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Usually associated with coastal rainforest or wet sclerophyll forest. It spends much of its life high in the trees and is usually only seen in association with heavy rain when it descends to breed. Also found in association with flooded drains, water tanks and quarries at this time.Breeding is in spring and summer (October - February) after heavy rain when they congregate in and around flooded areas and mountain streams. Calling, amplexus and oviposition occurs in permanent and semi-permanent shallow pools in or besides streams and eggs are laid singly or in small clumps entangled in vegetation.

  • Barker, J., Grigg, G. C., and Tyler, M. J. (1995). A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, New South Wales.
  • Davies, M. and McDonald, K.R. (1979). ''A study of intraspecific variation in the green tree frog Litoria chloris (Boulenger) (Hylidae).'' The Australian Zoologist, 20(2), 347-359.
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Threats

Major Threats
Habitat loss is a threat to some populations. Chytridiomycosis might be a future threat to the species.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

No known declines and extent of occurrence > 20, 000km2.

Threats
Habitat loss.

Conservation Measures
Its habitat is protected where it occurs in rainforests.

  • Barker, J., Grigg, G. C., and Tyler, M. J. (1995). A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, New South Wales.
  • Davies, M. and McDonald, K.R. (1979). ''A study of intraspecific variation in the green tree frog Litoria chloris (Boulenger) (Hylidae).'' The Australian Zoologist, 20(2), 347-359.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Its range includes several protected areas and its habitat is protected where it occurs in rainforests.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Litoria chloris has been used for research in areas such as antibiotic peptides and evaporative water loss (Steinborner 1998; Buttemer 1990). Also, this species is available in the pet trade (Vosjoli 1996).

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Wikipedia

Litoria chloris

For another species commonly known as the red-eyed tree frog, see Agalychnis callidryas

Litoria chloris, also commonly known as the red-eyed tree frog or orange-eyed tree frog, is a species of tree frog native to eastern Australia; ranging from north of Sydney to Proserpine in mid-northern Queensland.[1]

Description[edit]

The red-eyed tree frog is a uniform bright green above, occasionally with yellow spots, and bright yellow on the underside. The front sides of the arms and legs are green, while the underside is yellow or white. The thighs may be blue/purple to blue/black in colour in adults. It has golden eyes at the centre, which change to red towards the edge of the eye. The intensity of the eye colour is variable between frogs. The tympanum is visible, and a mature frog reaches a size of 65 mm.

The tadpoles are generally grey or brown, and can have gold pigment along the side.

A similar species, the orange-thighed frog (Litoria xantheroma) is found north of Proserpine and has orange on the back of the thighs.

Litoria chloris yellowspots.JPGLitoria chloris.jpg
Colour variation within the species: The frog on the left exhibits a darker green dorsal surface with yellow spots, and grey towards the iris. The frog on the right has a plain, bright-green dorsal surface with bright-red eyes.


Ecology and behaviour[edit]

This species of frog is associated with rainforests, wet sclerophyll forests, and woodlands. The call is several long, moaning "aaa-rk" sounds, followed by soft trills. Males call and breeding takes place mostly after rain in temporary ponds, roadside ditches, dams, ponds, and creek offshoots where the water is not flowing.

As a pet[edit]

It is kept as a pet.[2] In Australia, this animal may be kept in captivity with the appropriate permit.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Litoria chloris". Frogs Australia Network. 23 February 2005. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  2. ^ Davidson, Mark (2005). Keeping Frogs. Australia: Australian Reptile Keeper Publications. ISBN 0-9758200-0-1. 
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