Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Males 46-54 mm, females 46-55 mm. The skin is smooth in males and granular in females. The dorsal surface usually has irregular brown and black patches, but some individuals are almost uniform reddish or dark brown. There may be a light mid-dorsal line. The head is triangular, and the snout pointed. A line of tubercles extends from behind the eye along the side to the base of the legs. The belly is gray to brown.

Juveniles are similar to Dendrophryniscus minutus in general form, but the ventral surface of D. minutus is black at the front, and spotted black and white on the hind part.

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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs along the main trunk of the Amazon River from Manaus to eastern Ecuador, including Colombia and Peru. Although Frost (2002) records this species as spanning from the "Amazon river region from Ecuador to Manaus, Brazil", there have been no specific localities provided for eastern Ecuador.
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Distribution and Habitat

Occurs throughout the Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke in Brazil.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It lives in old growth and old second growth Tropical rainforest (See discussion by Hoogmoed, 1986). It reproduces explosively in small temporary pools.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rhinella proboscidea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Claude Gascon, Marinus Hoogmoed

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Population

Population
It is very common.

Population Trend
Stable
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

The species is terrestrial and diurnal. In the Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, the diet consists mainly of mites, ants, spiders, beetles and crickets. Reproduction occurs mainly between March and May. Breeding groups form for 2-3 days in pools or seeps near the headwaters of streams. Males call during the day and night, and more than 100 females can be found in one day at a single breeding site. Breeding groups form at different sites throughout the season, but it is not known whether individuals breed at different sites during a single breeding season. Clutches contain about 450 eggs.

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Threats

Major Threats
Habitat destruction and degradation are threats to this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It occurs in protected areas.
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Wikipedia

Bufo proboscideus

Rhinella proboscidea is a species of small South American toads in the Bufonidae family, common in the Amazon rainforest. It is the only species known to practice reproductive necrophilia.[1]

Taxonomy[edit]

Illustration from Spix's original description

The specific name derives from the Latin proboscis (elephant trunk), in recognition of the toad's prominent beak. It is a member of the R. margaritifera species complex.[2]

The species was first described under the name Bufo proboscideus by Johann Baptist von Spix in 1824.[3] Spix collected the holotype specimen near the Solimões River during his journey to Brazil. It is now held by the Zoologische Staatssammlung München.[4]

In 2006, members of the Bufo margaritifera complex were recognized as the new genus Rhinella, leading to the current name.[5] The merge of another genus into Rhinella left a different species sharing this name (homonymy), which was resolved by renaming the other species Rhinella boulengeri (now Dendrophryniscus proboscideus).[6][7]

Distribution[edit]

This toad is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and intermittent freshwater marshes. It is threatened by habitat loss.[8] It is common in parts of the Amazon rainforest.[2]

Characteristics[edit]

Rhinella proboscidea

Males are 46-54 mm with smooth skin, while females are 46-55 mm with granular skin. The dorsal surface is reddish or dark brown, and typically spattered with black and brown patches. It has a triangular head with a pointed snout, and a brown to gray belly.[9]

This toad is mostly active during the day, sleeping on small seedlings and shrubs at night,[2] but shows nocturnal activity during the breeding period.[10] Its tadpoles are light brown and similar to other R. margaritifera tadpoles.[2] The skin is highly toxic,[11] but predation by a snake (Xenoxybelis argenteus) has nonetheless been observed.[12]

This species is an explosive breeder that reproduces in shallow pools off the edge of streams.[2] The toads gather in these locations for two or three days, where they collectively fertilize thousands of eggs.[1] A typical reproductive period is from March to May, but it could vary depending on rainfall.[2] After heavy rain, choruses of as many as 100 male R. proboscidea calling for a mate have been heard.[2]

Males breed aggressively, approaching any nearby toad and attempting to steal mates from other males already in amplexus. These struggles sometimes result in the female being suffocated.[2] The dead females may be subjected to necrophilia. Males use their front and hind limbs to squeeze the sides of the corpse's belly until oocytes are ejected. The oocytes are then fertilized. In one study, this behavior was observed in five different males. The researchers suggested that the necrophilia was a reproductive strategy, offseting the fitness cost of the female's death. This would make R. proboscidea the only species known to practice reproductively functional, rather than accidental, necrophilia.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Izzo, T. J., Rodrigues, D. J., Menin, M., Lima, A. P., & Magnusson, W. E. (2012). "Functional necrophilia: a profitable anuran reproductive strategy?". Journal of Natural History 46 (47-48): 2961–2967. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Menin, M., Rodrigues, D. J., & Lima, A. P. (2006). "The tadpole of Rhinella proboscidea (Anura: Bufonidae) with notes on adult reproductive behavior". Zootaxa 1258: 47–56. 
  3. ^ Spix, Johann Baptist von (1824). Animalia nova sive species novae testudinum et ranarum, quas in itinere per Brasiliam annis 1817-1820. Monachii, F.S. Hübschmanni. p. 52. 
  4. ^ Glaw, F., Franzen, M. (2006). "Type catalogue of amphibians in the Zoologische Staatsammlung München". Spixiana 29: 162. 
  5. ^ Frost, D. R. et al. (2006). "The amphibian tree of life". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 365. 
  6. ^ Chaparro, J. C., Pramuk, J. B., Gluesenkamp, A. G., & Frost, D. R. (2007). "Secondary homonymy of Bufo proboscideus Spix, 1824, with Phryniscus proboscideus Boulenger, 1882". Copeia 2007 (4): 1029–1029. 
  7. ^ Frost, Darrel (2014). "Dendrophryniscus proboscideus (Boulenger, 1882)". Amphibian Species of the World 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 7 March 2015. 
  8. ^ Coloma, L.A., Ron, S., Gascon, C & Hoogmoed, M. (2004). "Rhinella proboscidea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 
  9. ^ Lima, Albertina P. et al. (2015). "Rhinella proboscidea". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  10. ^ Menin, M., Waldez, F., & Lima, A. P. (2008). "Temporal variation in the abundance and number of species of frogs in 10,000 ha of a forest in Central Amazonia, Brazil". South American Journal of Herpetology 3 (1): 72. 
  11. ^ Jovanovic, O., Vences, M., Safarek, G., Rabemananjara, F. C., & Dolch, R. (2009). "Predation upon Mantella aurantiaca in the Torotorofotsy wetlands, central-eastern Madagascar". Herpetology Notes 2: 96. 
  12. ^ Menin, M. (2005). "Bufo proboscideus. Predation". Herpetological Review 36 (3): 299. 
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