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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Source: IUCN

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Melanocorypha calandra

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ACTGCCCTA---AGCCTCCTTATCCGAGCAGAATTAGGCCAGCCCGGCACCCTACTAGGAGAC---GACCAAATCTACAACGTAATCGTCACAGCCCACGCCTTTGTAATAATCTTCTTTATGGTCATGCCTATTATAATCGGAGGCTTCGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCACTAATA---ATCGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCCCGAATAAACAACATGAGCTTCTGACTCCTACCCCCATCATTCCTCCTCCTACTAGCCTCCTCCACAGTCGAAACAGGTGCAGGAACAGGATGAACCGTATATCCCCCACTAGCCGGTAATCTAGCCCACGCCGGCGCCTCAGTTGACCTG---GCAATCTTCTCCCTGCACCTAGCAGGCATTTCATCAATCCTGGGCGCCATCAACTTCATCACCACAGCCATTAACATGAAACCACCCGCCCTCTCTCAATACCAAACACCCCTCTTCGTATGATCAGTTCTAATCACCGCCGTACTCCTACTTCTCTCCCTCCCAGTCCTAGCTGCT---GGCATCACTATGCTACTCACCGACCGCAACCTCAACACCACCTTCTTCGACCCCGCAGGTGGAGGAGACCCAGTACTCTACCAGCACTTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Melanocorypha calandra

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Status in Egypt

Winter visitor.

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© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

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Population

Population
In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 10000000-24000000 breeding pairs, equating to 30000000-72000000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 61200000-288000000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Wikipedia

Calandra lark

The calandra lark (Melanocorypha calandra) breeds in warm temperate countries around the Mediterranean and eastwards through Turkey into northern Iran and southern Russia. It is replaced further east by its relative, the bimaculated lark.

It is mainly resident in the west of its range, but Russian populations of this passerine bird are more migratory, moving further south in winter, as far as the Arabian peninsula and Egypt. It is a very rare vagrant to western Europe.

This is a bird of open cultivation and steppe. Its nest is on the ground, with 4–5 eggs being laid. Food is seeds supplemented with insects in the breeding season. It is gregarious outside the breeding season.

This is a large, robust lark, 17.5–20 cm long. It is an undistinguished-looking species on the ground, mainly streaked greyish-brown above and white below, and with large black patches on the breast sides. It has a white supercilium.

In flight it shows short broad wings, which are dark below, and a short white-edged tail. The wing and tail patterns are distinctions from its more easterly relatives.

The song is like a slower version of that of the skylark, so musical to human ears that the calandra lark was formerly a popular cagebird in its range (Kikkawa 2003). It is mentioned in, for instance, the Tuscan proverb "Canta come una calandra", he or she sings like a lark (Giusti 1853), and the Spanish ballad "Romance del prisionero", where its song is the only way the prisoner knows when day breaks (Applebaum 2004).

References[edit]

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