Diagnosis: Small dark blue-green dorsum, generally with scattered black spots. Snout is obtuse in profile. Dark green bones. White stripe on upper lip. Parietal peritoneal sheath, pericardium, and digestive tract white (Savage 2002).
Description: Adult males 22.5-29 mm SVL, adult females 29-32 mm SVL. Head wider than long. Snout is rounded in dorsal view, obtuse in profile. Nares are not protuberant and are directed dorsolaterally. Eyes are large but not protuberant. Interorbital width considerably exceeds the eye diameter. Tympanum is round and indistinct. Vomerine odontophores are round with only a few teeth present, and are located between choanae. Finger I is slightly longer than Finger II. Both finger and toe discs are truncated. Fingers I and II have no webbing in between, but there is vestigial webbing between Fingers II and III, and more developed webbing between Fingers II and IV. Toes are moderately webbed. There is no tarsal fold or tubercle present. No fringing is present on arms or legs. Dorsal skin surfaces are very granular. Males have a large, well-developed white nuptial pad on the dorsal and outer lateral margin of the base of each thumb (Savage 2002).
Coloration is dark blue-green, with scattered black spots usually present. Parietal peritoneal sheath covering anterior internal organs, white pericardium, and white digestive tract are present. Liver is reddish. Bones are dark green. Upper lip has a white stripe. Iris is pale gray-gold (Savage 2002).
Larvae are 11 mm at stage 25 with an elongated and slightly depressed body. Nostrils and eyes are dorsal. Spiracle is located sinistrally and is much closer to the posterior margin of the body than the eye. Vent tube is located in the middle. Mouth is ventral. A complete oral disc, beaks, and 2/3 rows of denticles are present. Lower beak has large blunt serrations. A2 is restricted to two short segments on either side of the mouth. P3 is equal to or only slightly shorter than other posterior tooth rows. A single row of labial papillae is present around the sides and bottom of the oral disc but not above mouth. The tail is long with reduced caudal fins and a round tip (Savage 2002; Lips and Savage 1996).
Larval coloration is black upon hatching. As the tadpole matures it becomes pale brown with translucent fins; the fins have sparse dark spotting toward the posterior (Savage 2002).
The specific epithet granulosa is derived from the Latin word granulum, meaning small-grained or granular, referring to the granular skin of this species (McCranie and Wilson 2002). The karyotype is 2N = 20 (Duellman 1967).
A Spanish-language species account can be found at the website of Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio).
Distribution and Habitat
Eastern Honduras to central Panama, and northern Costa Rica to southwestern Panama (Köhler 2001; Savage 2002; McCranie and Wilson 2002; McCranie 2007; Kubicki 2007), in the moist lowlands and premontane slopes at 40-1,500 m asl (Savage 2002).
Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
Species descriptions based on Ibanez et al (1999) and Savage (2002). Small frog, males to 29 mm, females to 32 mm.
Dorsal surface dark green and granular. Granules appear as small white spots; some black spots may also be present on the dorsal surface.
Iris pale grey-gold.
Feet are moderately webbed.
Habitat and Ecology
Lowland and premontane forest to 1500 m. Cochranella granulosa is associated with primary forest (Furlani et al 2009).
Life History and Behavior
A rapid creek, creek, creek (Ibanez et al 1999, Savage 2002).
Clutches of 50-60 eggs are deposited in a single layer on the upper surfaces of leaves near the tip (Starrett 1960, McDiarmid 1975, Savage 2002). The eggs of Cochranella granulosa are black and white (Savage 2002).
Tadpoles have an elongate body with a long, thin tail and small fins (Starrett 1960, Savage 2002). The tip of the tail sometimes has dark flecking or spots (Savage 2002). The mouth is oriented ventrally and has two upper (one partial) and three lower teethrows (Starrett 1960). Tadpoles appear pink or red due to large amounts of hemoglobin in the blood (Savage 2002). Centrolenid tadpoles are fossorial, living in the low-oxygen environment under mud and leaf litter in stream bottoms (McDiarmid and Altig 1999).
Physiology and Cell Biology
2N = 20 (Duellman 1967)
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Cochranella granulosa
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cochranella granulosa
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 2004Least Concern
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Cochranella granulosa is a nocturnal species (Savage 2002). Males call from trees 5-10 m above fast-flowing streams (Savage 2002). The call is a series of rapid harsh notes "creep-creep-creep" at a dominant frequency of 4-4.5 kHz (Savage 2002). Eggs are generally laid arboreally above streams in a single-layered jelly mass approximately 20 X 35 mm, with each clutch containing 49-60 eggs (Savage 2002), although this species also occasionally breeds in ponds (Guayasamin et al. 2009). Eggs are black and white and measure 1.5 mm in diameter by themselves or 3 mm with the envelope (Savage 2002). The jelly mass hangs over the edge of the leaf, forming a drip tip so that water constantly flows over the eggs (Savage 2002). No long-term parental care is provided (Savage 2002). The tadpole is a detritivore that burrows in deposits of organic materials (Altig et al. 2007).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Although Cochranella granulosa is found in Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama, there are few records from Honduras and Nicaragua (Solís et al. 2008). This species is found in a number of protected areas, but in the rest of its range it is threatened by severe deforestation (Solís et al. 2008). It requires primary forest (Furlani et al. 2009). Water pollution also presents a threat (Solís et al. 2008).
Cochranella granulosa (common name: grainy Cochran frog, in Spanish ranita de cristal) is a species of frog in the Centrolenidae family. It is found in Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.
Cochranella granulosa is a nocturnal, arboreal frog found in humid lowland and montane forests. It is typically found in vegetation near streams. Eggs are deposited on vegetation over streams, and the tadpoles drop to water upon hatching. This species is negatively impacted by habitat loss (deforestation) and water pollution.
- Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Jaramillo, C., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Cruz, G., Wilson, L.D., Köhler, G., Kubicki, B. & Sunyer, J. (2010). "Cochranella granulosa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Cochranella granulosa (Taylor, 1949)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
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