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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Diagnosis: Small dark blue-green dorsum, generally with scattered black spots. Snout is obtuse in profile. Dark green bones. White stripe on upper lip. Parietal peritoneal sheath, pericardium, and digestive tract white (Savage 2002).

Description: Adult males 22.5-29 mm SVL, adult females 29-32 mm SVL. Head wider than long. Snout is rounded in dorsal view, obtuse in profile. Nares are not protuberant and are directed dorsolaterally. Eyes are large but not protuberant. Interorbital width considerably exceeds the eye diameter. Tympanum is round and indistinct. Vomerine odontophores are round with only a few teeth present, and are located between choanae. Finger I is slightly longer than Finger II. Both finger and toe discs are truncated. Fingers I and II have no webbing in between, but there is vestigial webbing between Fingers II and III, and more developed webbing between Fingers II and IV. Toes are moderately webbed. There is no tarsal fold or tubercle present. No fringing is present on arms or legs. Dorsal skin surfaces are very granular. Males have a large, well-developed white nuptial pad on the dorsal and outer lateral margin of the base of each thumb (Savage 2002).

Coloration is dark blue-green, with scattered black spots usually present. Parietal peritoneal sheath covering anterior internal organs, white pericardium, and white digestive tract are present. Liver is reddish. Bones are dark green. Upper lip has a white stripe. Iris is pale gray-gold (Savage 2002).

Larvae are 11 mm at stage 25 with an elongated and slightly depressed body. Nostrils and eyes are dorsal. Spiracle is located sinistrally and is much closer to the posterior margin of the body than the eye. Vent tube is located in the middle. Mouth is ventral. A complete oral disc, beaks, and 2/3 rows of denticles are present. Lower beak has large blunt serrations. A2 is restricted to two short segments on either side of the mouth. P3 is equal to or only slightly shorter than other posterior tooth rows. A single row of labial papillae is present around the sides and bottom of the oral disc but not above mouth. The tail is long with reduced caudal fins and a round tip (Savage 2002; Lips and Savage 1996).

Larval coloration is black upon hatching. As the tadpole matures it becomes pale brown with translucent fins; the fins have sparse dark spotting toward the posterior (Savage 2002).

The specific epithet granulosa is derived from the Latin word granulum, meaning small-grained or granular, referring to the granular skin of this species (McCranie and Wilson 2002). The karyotype is 2N = 20 (Duellman 1967).

A Spanish-language species account can be found at the website of Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio).

  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • McCranie, J. R. (2007). ''Distribution of the amphibians of Honduras by departments.'' Herpetological Review, 38(1), 35-39.
  • McCranie, J. R., and Wilson, L. D. (2002). ''The Amphibians of Honduras.'' Contributions to Herpetology, Vol 19. K. Adler and T. D. Perry, eds., Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.
  • Guayasamin, J. M., Castroviejo-Fisher, S., Trueb, L., Ayarzaguena, J., Rada, M., and Vila, C. (2009). ''Phylogenetic systematics of glassfrogs (Amphibia: Centrolenidae) and their sister taxon Allophryne ruthveni .'' Zootaxa, 2100, 1-97.
  • Altig, R., Whiles, M. R., and Taylor, C. L. (2007). ''What do tadpoles really eat? Assessing the trophic status of an understudied and imperiled group of consumers in freshwater habitats.'' Freshwater Biology, 52, 386-395.
  • Duellman, W. E. (1967). ''Additional studies of chromosomes of anuran amphibians.'' Systematic Zoology, 16(1), 38-43.
  • Furlani, D., Ficetola, G. F., Colombo, G., Ugurlucan, M., and De Bernardi, F. (2009). ''Deforestation and the structure of frog communities in the Humedale Terraba-Sierpe, Costa Rica.'' Zoological Science, 26, 197-202.
  • Kubicki, B. (2007). Glass Frogs of Costa Rica/ Rana de Vidrio de Costa Rica. Editorial INBio, Costa Rica.
  • Lips, K. L., and Savage, J. M. (1996). ''Key to the known tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura) of Costa Rica.'' Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 31, 17-26.
  • Ibañez, R., Solí­s, F., Jaramillo, C. and Rand, S. (2000). ''An overview of the herpetology of Panama.'' Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation. Johnson, J. D., Webb, R. G. and Flores-Villela, O. A., eds., The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, 159-170.
  • Ibañez, R., Rand, A. S. and Jaramillo, C. A. (1999). Los Anfibios del Monumento Natural Barro Colorado, Parque Nacional Soberanía y Areas Adyacentes. Mizrachi, E. and Pujol, S. A., Santa Fe de Bogota.
  • Köhler, G. (2001). Anfibios y Reptiles de Nicaragua. Herpeton, Offenbach, Federal Republic of Germany.
  • Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Jaramillo, C., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Cruz, G., Wilson, L.D., Köhler, G. and Kubicki, B. (2004). Cochranella granulosa. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 05 October 2009.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs in humid lowlands and premontane slopes from Atlantic slope eastern Honduras to central Panama and on the Pacific versant in humid upland or gallery forest situations from central Costa Rica to southwestern Panama, from 30-1,500m asl (Savage, 2002).
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Distribution and Habitat

Eastern Honduras to central Panama, and northern Costa Rica to southwestern Panama (Köhler 2001; Savage 2002; McCranie and Wilson 2002; McCranie 2007; Kubicki 2007), in the moist lowlands and premontane slopes at 40-1,500 m asl (Savage 2002).

  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • McCranie, J. R. (2007). ''Distribution of the amphibians of Honduras by departments.'' Herpetological Review, 38(1), 35-39.
  • McCranie, J. R., and Wilson, L. D. (2002). ''The Amphibians of Honduras.'' Contributions to Herpetology, Vol 19. K. Adler and T. D. Perry, eds., Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.
  • Guayasamin, J. M., Castroviejo-Fisher, S., Trueb, L., Ayarzaguena, J., Rada, M., and Vila, C. (2009). ''Phylogenetic systematics of glassfrogs (Amphibia: Centrolenidae) and their sister taxon Allophryne ruthveni .'' Zootaxa, 2100, 1-97.
  • Altig, R., Whiles, M. R., and Taylor, C. L. (2007). ''What do tadpoles really eat? Assessing the trophic status of an understudied and imperiled group of consumers in freshwater habitats.'' Freshwater Biology, 52, 386-395.
  • Duellman, W. E. (1967). ''Additional studies of chromosomes of anuran amphibians.'' Systematic Zoology, 16(1), 38-43.
  • Furlani, D., Ficetola, G. F., Colombo, G., Ugurlucan, M., and De Bernardi, F. (2009). ''Deforestation and the structure of frog communities in the Humedale Terraba-Sierpe, Costa Rica.'' Zoological Science, 26, 197-202.
  • Kubicki, B. (2007). Glass Frogs of Costa Rica/ Rana de Vidrio de Costa Rica. Editorial INBio, Costa Rica.
  • Lips, K. L., and Savage, J. M. (1996). ''Key to the known tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura) of Costa Rica.'' Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 31, 17-26.
  • Ibañez, R., Solí­s, F., Jaramillo, C. and Rand, S. (2000). ''An overview of the herpetology of Panama.'' Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation. Johnson, J. D., Webb, R. G. and Flores-Villela, O. A., eds., The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, 159-170.
  • Ibañez, R., Rand, A. S. and Jaramillo, C. A. (1999). Los Anfibios del Monumento Natural Barro Colorado, Parque Nacional Soberanía y Areas Adyacentes. Mizrachi, E. and Pujol, S. A., Santa Fe de Bogota.
  • Köhler, G. (2001). Anfibios y Reptiles de Nicaragua. Herpeton, Offenbach, Federal Republic of Germany.
  • Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Jaramillo, C., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Cruz, G., Wilson, L.D., Köhler, G. and Kubicki, B. (2004). Cochranella granulosa. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 05 October 2009.
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Countries

Countries

Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Identification

Adult

Species descriptions based on Ibanez et al (1999) and Savage (2002).  Small frog, males to 29 mm, females to 32 mm.

Dorsal

Dorsal surface dark green and granular. Granules appear as small white spots; some black spots may also be present on the dorsal surface.

Eye

Iris pale grey-gold.

Extremities

Feet are moderately webbed.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is a nocturnal, arboreal species of humid lowland and montane forest. It may occur in suitable modified habitats (with some trees remaining), and is usually found in bushes and trees along forest streams. Eggs are deposited on vegetation overhanging streams; larvae develop in the streams.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Habitat

Lowland and premontane forest to 1500 m. Cochranella granulosa is associated with primary forest (Furlani et al 2009).

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Behaviour

Call

A rapid creek, creek, creek (Ibanez et al 1999, Savage 2002).

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Life Cycle

Life History

Egg

Clutches of 50-60 eggs are deposited in a single layer on the upper surfaces of leaves near the tip (Starrett 1960, McDiarmid 1975, Savage 2002). The eggs of Cochranella granulosa are black and white (Savage 2002).

Tadpole

Tadpoles have an elongate body with a long, thin tail and small fins (Starrett 1960, Savage 2002). The tip of the tail sometimes has dark flecking or spots (Savage 2002). The mouth is oriented ventrally and has two upper (one partial) and three lower teethrows (Starrett 1960). Tadpoles appear pink or red due to large amounts of hemoglobin in the blood (Savage 2002). Centrolenid tadpoles are fossorial, living in the low-oxygen environment under mud and leaf litter in stream bottoms (McDiarmid and Altig 1999).

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Physiology and Cell Biology

Cell Biology

Karyotype

Karyotype

2N = 20 (Duellman 1967)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cochranella granulosa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Frank Solís, Roberto Ibáñez, César Jaramillo, Gerardo Chaves, Jay Savage, Gustavo Cruz, Larry David Wilson, Gunther Köhler, Brian Kubicki, Javier Sunyer

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
This species is regularly encountered in Costa Rica, and is considered to be common in Panama. There are few records from Honduras and Nicaragua.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Cochranella granulosa is a nocturnal species (Savage 2002). Males call from trees 5-10 m above fast-flowing streams (Savage 2002). The call is a series of rapid harsh notes "creep-creep-creep" at a dominant frequency of 4-4.5 kHz (Savage 2002). Eggs are generally laid arboreally above streams in a single-layered jelly mass approximately 20 X 35 mm, with each clutch containing 49-60 eggs (Savage 2002), although this species also occasionally breeds in ponds (Guayasamin et al. 2009). Eggs are black and white and measure 1.5 mm in diameter by themselves or 3 mm with the envelope (Savage 2002). The jelly mass hangs over the edge of the leaf, forming a drip tip so that water constantly flows over the eggs (Savage 2002). No long-term parental care is provided (Savage 2002). The tadpole is a detritivore that burrows in deposits of organic materials (Altig et al. 2007).

  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • McCranie, J. R. (2007). ''Distribution of the amphibians of Honduras by departments.'' Herpetological Review, 38(1), 35-39.
  • McCranie, J. R., and Wilson, L. D. (2002). ''The Amphibians of Honduras.'' Contributions to Herpetology, Vol 19. K. Adler and T. D. Perry, eds., Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.
  • Guayasamin, J. M., Castroviejo-Fisher, S., Trueb, L., Ayarzaguena, J., Rada, M., and Vila, C. (2009). ''Phylogenetic systematics of glassfrogs (Amphibia: Centrolenidae) and their sister taxon Allophryne ruthveni .'' Zootaxa, 2100, 1-97.
  • Altig, R., Whiles, M. R., and Taylor, C. L. (2007). ''What do tadpoles really eat? Assessing the trophic status of an understudied and imperiled group of consumers in freshwater habitats.'' Freshwater Biology, 52, 386-395.
  • Duellman, W. E. (1967). ''Additional studies of chromosomes of anuran amphibians.'' Systematic Zoology, 16(1), 38-43.
  • Furlani, D., Ficetola, G. F., Colombo, G., Ugurlucan, M., and De Bernardi, F. (2009). ''Deforestation and the structure of frog communities in the Humedale Terraba-Sierpe, Costa Rica.'' Zoological Science, 26, 197-202.
  • Kubicki, B. (2007). Glass Frogs of Costa Rica/ Rana de Vidrio de Costa Rica. Editorial INBio, Costa Rica.
  • Lips, K. L., and Savage, J. M. (1996). ''Key to the known tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura) of Costa Rica.'' Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 31, 17-26.
  • Ibañez, R., Solí­s, F., Jaramillo, C. and Rand, S. (2000). ''An overview of the herpetology of Panama.'' Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation. Johnson, J. D., Webb, R. G. and Flores-Villela, O. A., eds., The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, 159-170.
  • Ibañez, R., Rand, A. S. and Jaramillo, C. A. (1999). Los Anfibios del Monumento Natural Barro Colorado, Parque Nacional Soberanía y Areas Adyacentes. Mizrachi, E. and Pujol, S. A., Santa Fe de Bogota.
  • Köhler, G. (2001). Anfibios y Reptiles de Nicaragua. Herpeton, Offenbach, Federal Republic of Germany.
  • Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Jaramillo, C., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Cruz, G., Wilson, L.D., Köhler, G. and Kubicki, B. (2004). Cochranella granulosa. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 05 October 2009.
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Threats

Major Threats
Generally threatened by both severe habitat loss resulting from deforestation, and water pollution.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Although Cochranella granulosa is found in Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama, there are few records from Honduras and Nicaragua (Solís et al. 2008). This species is found in a number of protected areas, but in the rest of its range it is threatened by severe deforestation (Solís et al. 2008). It requires primary forest (Furlani et al. 2009). Water pollution also presents a threat (Solís et al. 2008).

  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • McCranie, J. R. (2007). ''Distribution of the amphibians of Honduras by departments.'' Herpetological Review, 38(1), 35-39.
  • McCranie, J. R., and Wilson, L. D. (2002). ''The Amphibians of Honduras.'' Contributions to Herpetology, Vol 19. K. Adler and T. D. Perry, eds., Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.
  • Guayasamin, J. M., Castroviejo-Fisher, S., Trueb, L., Ayarzaguena, J., Rada, M., and Vila, C. (2009). ''Phylogenetic systematics of glassfrogs (Amphibia: Centrolenidae) and their sister taxon Allophryne ruthveni .'' Zootaxa, 2100, 1-97.
  • Altig, R., Whiles, M. R., and Taylor, C. L. (2007). ''What do tadpoles really eat? Assessing the trophic status of an understudied and imperiled group of consumers in freshwater habitats.'' Freshwater Biology, 52, 386-395.
  • Duellman, W. E. (1967). ''Additional studies of chromosomes of anuran amphibians.'' Systematic Zoology, 16(1), 38-43.
  • Furlani, D., Ficetola, G. F., Colombo, G., Ugurlucan, M., and De Bernardi, F. (2009). ''Deforestation and the structure of frog communities in the Humedale Terraba-Sierpe, Costa Rica.'' Zoological Science, 26, 197-202.
  • Kubicki, B. (2007). Glass Frogs of Costa Rica/ Rana de Vidrio de Costa Rica. Editorial INBio, Costa Rica.
  • Lips, K. L., and Savage, J. M. (1996). ''Key to the known tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura) of Costa Rica.'' Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 31, 17-26.
  • Ibañez, R., Solí­s, F., Jaramillo, C. and Rand, S. (2000). ''An overview of the herpetology of Panama.'' Mesoamerican Herpetology: Systematics, Zoogeography and Conservation. Johnson, J. D., Webb, R. G. and Flores-Villela, O. A., eds., The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, 159-170.
  • Ibañez, R., Rand, A. S. and Jaramillo, C. A. (1999). Los Anfibios del Monumento Natural Barro Colorado, Parque Nacional Soberanía y Areas Adyacentes. Mizrachi, E. and Pujol, S. A., Santa Fe de Bogota.
  • Köhler, G. (2001). Anfibios y Reptiles de Nicaragua. Herpeton, Offenbach, Federal Republic of Germany.
  • Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Jaramillo, C., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Cruz, G., Wilson, L.D., Köhler, G. and Kubicki, B. (2004). Cochranella granulosa. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 05 October 2009.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
While there are no specific conservation measures in place, the species has been recorded from many protected areas.
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Wikipedia

Cochranella granulosa

Cochranella granulosa (common name: grainy Cochran frog, in Spanish ranita de cristal) is a species of frog in the Centrolenidae family. It is found in Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.[1][2]

Cochranella granulosa is a nocturnal, arboreal frog found in humid lowland and montane forests. It is typically found in vegetation near streams. Eggs are deposited on vegetation over streams, and the tadpoles drop to water upon hatching. This species is negatively impacted by habitat loss (deforestation) and water pollution.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Jaramillo, C., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Cruz, G., Wilson, L.D., Köhler, G., Kubicki, B. & Sunyer, J. (2010). "Cochranella granulosa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Cochranella granulosa (Taylor, 1949)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
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