Habitat and Ecology
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
CITES Appendix II. It has been protected since 1966, with protection strengthened in 1974, leading to an increase in numbers (Cheke 1987c), and is protected by a 1989 Ministerial Decree. Ongoing public awareness campaigns and conservation action aim to stop poaching and to rescue and release poached birds (M. Le Corre in litt. 1999). Between 1997-2009 103 individuals were taken into care, many in a critical condition, of which 43 were successfully released back into the wild (Grondin & Philippe 2011). Advice has been given on minimising secondary poisoning occurring as a result of rodent control. A Species Action Plan was published in 2011 (Grondin & Philippe 2011).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor its population trends. Continue developing public awareness campaigns to stop poaching and persecution. Protect remaining habitat. Ensure that rodent control methods minimise the risk of secondary poisoning (M. Le Corre in litt. 1999, Grondin & Philippe 2011). Develop a strategy to decrease collisions with cables and wind turbines, and improve care of birds brought to SEOR care centre (V. Grondin in litt. 2012).
The Réunion harrier or Réunion marsh harrier (Circus maillardi) is a bird of prey belonging to the marsh harrier group of harriers. It is now found only on the Indian Ocean island of Réunion, where it is known locally as the papangue or pied jaune, although fossil material from Mauritius has been referred to this species. The Malagasy harrier (C. macrosceles) of Madagascar and the Comoro Islands was previously treated as a subspecies of this bird but is increasingly regarded as a separate species. The Réunion harrier appears to be declining in numbers and it is classed as an endangered species.
It is about 42–55 cm long; the female is around 3–15% larger than the male. The male has a blackish head and back with white streaks. The underparts, underwings and rump are white and the tail is grey. The wings are grey and black with a white leading edge. Females and immatures are dark brown with a white rump and barred tail.
The birds are mostly silent except during the breeding season when they give a chattering threat call, a wailing courtship call and chuckling food-associated calls.
The Malagasy harrier is larger and paler with longer wings and legs.
It is typically found in forested upland areas between 300 and 700 m above sea-level. It also visits cane fields and grassland. Today its diet includes many introduced mammals (rats, mice and tenrecs) but it originally fed mainly on birds and insects. It will also take small lizards, frogs and carrion. It has a number of adaptations which are unusual among harriers: broad rounded wings for hunting between trees and a short tarsus and long claws, which are common among those birds of prey which feed on other birds. It breeds between January and May and lays two or three white eggs in a nest on the ground.
Status and conservation
In 2011 it had an estimated population of at least 564 birds including about 150 breeding pairs. It has been evaluated as endangered by BirdLife International and it is threatened by destruction and disturbance of its habitat and by poaching, deliberate persecution and accidental poisoning by rodenticides. It became a protected species in 1966 and its numbers were thought to be stable or increasing until 2000–2010 when its population appeared to decrease.
- Mouth of the Cirque de Salazie
- Ravine de la Grande Chaloupe
- Rivière des Marsouins – Grand Étang
- Rivière des Remparts - Rivière Langevin
The species was described in 1862 by Jules Verreaux. He named it in honour of Louis Maillard, a French botanist and engineer who mentioned the bird in a book about the island.
In 1893 Alfred Newton and Hans Gadow described tarsometatarsi, tibiae and metacarpals from a hawk called Astur alphonsi (later renamed Accipiter alphonsi and Circus alphonsi) from Mauritius. In 1958 James Greenway considered this taxon as conspecific with the pied harrier. A later examination of the bones came to the conclusion that Astur alphonsi is actually identical with Circus maillardi, which formerly occurred on Mauritius too but is now extirpated.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Circus maillardi.|
- BirdLife International (2012). "Circus maillardi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Ferguson-Lees, James & David A. Christie (2001) Raptors of the World, Christopher Helm, London.
- BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Circus maillardi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26 January 2014.
- Clarke, Roger (1995) The Marsh Harrier, Hamlyn, London.
- Barré, Nicolas; Armand Barau & Christian Jouanin (1996) Oiseaux de la Réunion, Les Éditions du Pacifique, Paris.
- "Reunion Harrier". Important Bird Areas factsheet. BirdLife International. 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-07.
- Rothschild, Walter (1907) Extinct Birds, Hutchinson & Co., London.
- Greenway, James (1958; 1967 for the 2nd edition) Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World, Dover Publications.
- Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Roger Bour & Sonia Ribes (2004) "The taxonomic identity of Circus alphonsi (Newton & Gadow 1893), the extinct harrier from Mauritius", Ibis, 146 (1): 168-172.
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