Overview

Distribution

Range

southwestern Europe and northern Africa (Morocco east to northwestern Libya); winters s Mauritania to w Sudan.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 2 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 9.885 - 10.083
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.010 - 2.813
  Salinity (PPS): 34.758 - 34.950
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.360 - 6.373
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.355 - 0.371
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.624 - 1.816

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 9.885 - 10.083

Nitrate (umol/L): 2.010 - 2.813

Salinity (PPS): 34.758 - 34.950

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.360 - 6.373

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.355 - 0.371

Silicate (umol/l): 1.624 - 1.816
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:209
Specimens with Sequences:172
Specimens with Barcodes:172
Species:16
Species With Barcodes:14
Public Records:71
Public Species:11
Public BINs:11
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Typical warbler

From top (males in front):
Lesser whitethroat (Sylvia curruca)
common whitethroat (Sylvia communis)
garden warbler (Sylvia borin)

The typical warblers are small birds belonging to the genus Sylvia in the "Old World warbler" (or sylviid warbler) family Sylviidae.[1][2] There are 28 species currently included in the genus, including five species formerly treated in the genus Parisoma, a treatment which left Sylvia paraphyletic.[1][2][3][4] Typical warblers occur in the temperate to tropical regions of Europe, western and central Asia, and Africa, with the highest species diversity centred on the Mediterranean.

They are strongly built, with stouter legs and a slightly thicker bill than many other warblers, and range in size from 11 cm length and 7 g weight (African desert warbler) up to 17 cm length and 36 g weight (barred warbler). The plumage is based around varying shades of grey and brown, usually darker above and paler below, with bluish or pinkish tones in several species; several also have orange-brown or rufous fringed wing feathers. The tail is square-ended in most, slightly rounded in a few, and in several species has white sides. Many of the species show some sexual dimorphism, with distinctive male and female plumages, with the males in many having black or bright grey on the heads, replaced by brown, brownish-grey or similar dusky colours in females; about a third of the species also have a conspicuous red eye ring in males. Species breeding in cool temperate regions are strongly migratory, while most of those in warmer regions are partially migratory or resident. They are active warblers usually associated with open woodland, scrub, hedges or shrubs. Their diet is largely insectivorous, though several species also eat fruit extensively, mainly small berries such as elder and ivy, particularly from late summer to late winter; one species (blackcap) also frequently takes a wide variety of human-provided foods on birdtables in winter.[2][5]

Systematics[edit]

The typical warblers are now known to form a major lineage in a clade containing also the parrotbills and some taxa formerly considered to be Old World babblers.[6][7] The other "Old World warblers" have been moved to their own families, entirely redelimiting the Sylviidae. Because of their distinctness, the Sylvia group might be considered a subfamily Sylviinae,[citation needed] but several Old World warblers are pending restudy with the new data. In particular the relationship to the African hill babbler (Pseudoalcippe abyssinica) and the Chinese hill warbler (Rhopophilus pekinensis) are not entirely resolved but certainly more distant.[citation needed]

The genus as currently circumscribed includes the following species:[1]

The relationships between all the species are not yet fully resolved;[3][4] the list above follows the IOC list order.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d IOC World Bird List version 2.9: Old World Warblers
  2. ^ a b c Del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A., & Christie, D. (editors). (2006). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 11: Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 84-96553-06-X.
  3. ^ a b Helbig, A. J. (2001). The characteristics of the genus: Phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Sylvia. Pages 24–28 in: Shirihai, H., Gargallo, G., Helbig, A. J., & Harris, A. Sylvia Warblers. Helm Identification Guides ISBN 0-7136-3984-9
  4. ^ a b Jønsson, K. A. & Fjeldså, J. (2006). A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds (Aves: Passeri). Zool. Scripta 35 (2): 149–186. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00221.x (HTML abstract)
  5. ^ Snow, D. W., & Perrins, C. M. (1998). The Birds of the Western Palearctic (Concise Edition ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854099-X. 
  6. ^ Alström, P., Ericson, P. G. P., Olsson, U., & Sundberg, P. (2006). Phylogeny and classification of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38 (2): 381–397. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.05.015 PMID 16054402
  7. ^ Cibois, A. (2003). Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny of Babblers (Timaliidae). Auk 120 (1): 1–20. DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2003)120[0035:MDPOBT]2.0.CO;2 HTML fulltext without images
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Desert Warbler

The Desert Warbler is a former bird species, which has now been divided into two species:

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