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Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: Northern Eurasia and western Alaska in Cape Prince of Wales region. WINTERS: Old World and casually along the west coast of North America from western and southern Alaska south to British Columbia (also recorded a few times in California).

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Range Description

This species has a wide range across northern latitudes, breeding on large, deep freshwater lakes in Russia, Scandinavia, Alaska (USA) and Canada. After breeding inviduals move southwards and towards the sea, wintering in sheltered coasts in the north-east Atlantic, and on the eastern and western coasts of the Pacific (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
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Geographic Range

Arctic Loons or black-throated divers (Gavia arctica) have a large global distribution, as they are found across roughly 10 million square kilometers. They are a migratory species, restricted to regions throughout the northern hemisphere.

The winter range of Arctic loons is much more extensive than that of their breeding range. In winter, they are primarily found on large lakes off the coasts of Europe, Asia and North America, including the northern tundra and taiga habitats of Canada, Russia, Scandinavia and Greenland. European populations typically inhabit areas ranging from the Baltic Sea to the northern Mediterranean during winter months. North American populations commonly settle along the Pacific coast from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California during the winter. Throughout the breeding season, Arctic loons extend across portions of Eurasia, and occasionally extend to parts of western Alaska. Roughly half of the western European population breeds in Sweden. Vagrant or accidental individuals also have been noted in northern Africa, southwestern Europe, western Middle East, and India.

Biogeographic Regions: palearctic (Native )

  • BirdLife International, 2009. "Gavia arctica" (On-line). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed December 02, 2010 at www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Conant, B., R. King, J. Hodges, J. King. 1996. Status and trends of loon populations summering in Alaska 1971-1993. The Condor, 98/2: 189-195.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Arctic loons grow to an average of 40 to 81 cm in body length. These birds have wing lengths ranging between 114 and 124 cm and have a mean body weight fluctuating between 3 and 5 g. In breeding plumage, they feature white-spotted, black backs segmented into white lines, which are visible above the water while swimming. The head and posterior half of the neck are gray. The front half of the neck has a bold black stripe with long, thin vertical white stripes along both sides of the throat. Commonly referred to as “black-throated loons” which was coined by the black stripe on the throat. During the non-breeding season, the crown and nape darken to black, as does the back which loses the white barring. The face, throat and breast become starkly white and unmarked. This species closely resembles Pacific loons (Gavia pacifica) but may be distinguished by an extensive white flank patch that is present in both breeding and winter plumages.

Female and male Arctic loons are similar in their physical appearances and feature distinctive, deep-red eyes.

Juveniles closely resemble wintering adults, but are a more dusky-gray versus black and may exhibit a faint scaled pattern on their backs and wings.

Range mass: 3 to 5 g.

Range length: 40 to 81 cm.

Range wingspan: 114 to 124 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

  • Sjolander, S. 1978. Reproductive Behavior of the Black-Throated Diver Gavia arctica. Ornis Scandinavica, 9/1: 51-65.
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Size

Length: 66 cm

Weight: 1659 grams

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Diagnostic Description

G. ARCTICA has more white on the flanks at the waterline than does G. PACIFICA (see McCaskie et al. 1990, Roberson 1989, and Schulenberg 1989 for further details). See Stallcup (1994) for information on identification of North American loons.

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Nonbreeding: primarily seacoasts, bays, and estuaries, less frequently on lake and rivers (AOU 1983). Nests on tundra and taiga lakes.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Behaviour This species is strongly migratory (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Snow and Perrins 1998). It breeds in isolated solitary pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Snow and Perrins 1998) from April onwards (Flint et al. 1984), nesting later further to the north depending on the timing of the thaw (del Hoyo et al. 1992). On migration the species often forms flocks of c.50 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1992), generally occurring singly, in pairs or small flocks during the winter (Snow and Perrins 1998) and occasionally forming large congregations in rich coastal fishing areas (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Habitat Breeding It breeds on deep, productive, freshwater lakes (del Hoyo et al. 1992) or extensive pools with islets, peninsulas and other inaccessible nesting sites (Snow and Perrins 1998). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season the species is most common on inshore waters along sheltered coasts (del Hoyo et al. 1992), occasionally also frequenting large inland freshwater bodies (Flint et al. 1984, del Hoyo et al. 1992) such as natural lakes or barrages, lagoons and large rivers (Snow and Perrins 1998). Diet Its diets consists predominantly of fishalthough aquatic insects, molluscs, crustaceans and some plant matter may also be taken (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Breeding site The nest is a heap of plant matter placed near the water's edge (del Hoyo et al. 1992) on islets or hummocks emerging from the water, sometimes also on clumps of grass on the shore (Flint et al. 1984). Management information In Scotland the construction of floating artificial nesting islands (rafts) on lakes where breeding success was low and/or nests had been flooded succeeded in increasing the breeding success of the species in the area (Hancock 2000). In Sweden it was also found that nesting islands and areas of surrounding water should be included in sanctuaries for this species (Gotmark et al. 1989).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
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Arctic loons breed on deep, productive, freshwater lakes or extensive pools with neighboring islands, peninsulas and other humanly-inaccessible nesting sites. They prefer a habitat free of disturbance. Gavia arctica relies on its freshwater breeding territory to provide food. They dive deep in the water for fish and also feed their offspring small fishes and insects until they increase in size, enabling them to feed on larger fish. Outside of the breeding season the species is commonly located among inshore waters along sheltered coasts. Gavia arctica is also occasionally found throughout large inland bodies of freshwater such as natural lakes or streams, and large rivers.

Arctic loons build their nest in May and June, and take about a week to complete. A nest contains piles of aquatic vegetation close to the edge of the water body, usually near a sheltered bay, island, or adjacent river system.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; polar ; freshwater

Terrestrial Biomes: tundra

Aquatic Biomes: lakes and ponds; rivers and streams; coastal

Other Habitat Features: riparian

  • Jackson, D. 2003. Between-lake differences in the diet and provisioning behavior of black-throated divers (Gavia arctica) breeding in Scotland. British Ornithologist Union, 145/1: 30-44.
  • Petersen, M. 1979. Nesting Ecology of Arctic Loons. The Wilson Bulletin, 91/4: 608-617.
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Depth range based on 247 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 75 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 3.078 - 16.316
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.240 - 7.309
  Salinity (PPS): 6.428 - 35.409
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.685 - 7.967
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.273 - 1.033
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.436 - 9.916

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 3.078 - 16.316

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.240 - 7.309

Salinity (PPS): 6.428 - 35.409

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.685 - 7.967

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.273 - 1.033

Silicate (umol/l): 1.436 - 9.916
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Gavia arctica are carnivores. They are primarily piscivorous, as their diet relies heavily upon fish, but also crustaceans and aquatic insects. They dive deep from the surface to feed. When a fish or other type of prey is caught, the loon throws back its head and swallows it. Newly hatched young are fed by their parents. Their diets consist predominantly of aquatic insects, with an increasing proportion of fish in their diet as they grow larger. In lakes with low densities of fish, young often are fed almost entirely on aquatic insects.

Animal Foods: fish; insects; aquatic crustaceans

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore )

  • Mats, E. 1986. Reproduction of the black-throated diver Gavia arctica in relation to fish density in oligotrophic lakes in southwestern Sweden. Holarctic Ecology, 9: 277-284.
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Associations

Ecosystem Roles

Arctic loons serve as both prey and predator within their ecosystems. They provide food for local predators as well as control populations of fish, crustaceans and aquatic insects. They are also a host to several different body parasites, most of which are tapeworms and flukes.

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • Daoust, P., G. Conoby, S. McBurney, N. Burgess. 1998. Interactive mortality factors In common loons from maritime Canada. Journal of Wildlife Disease, 34(3): 524-531.
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Predation

Arctic loon adults do not have many natural predators. Bald eagles are their main predators. Bald eagles attack unsuspecting, incubating parents. Young chicks also are vulnerable to predation by large predatory fish, bald eagles and herring gulls.

There are a number of other animals who primarily prey on eggs. Common egg predators include raccoons, gulls, crows and foxes. Predation on eggs of arctic loons takes place when an incubating adult is forced off the nest because of human disturbance, or if it is preoccupied by an intruder. During this time the unattended eggs quickly attract nearby predators.

Adult Arctic loons respond to the sight of a predator with wailing and alarming vocalizations to inform both offspring and mates of the intruder. The young chicks respond by quickly swimming to a protected area of shoreline and remain hidden until the threat is no longer present. On freshwater lakes, adults are generally safe from underwater predators, but young chicks are vulnerable to large predatory fish. If an adult spots an underwater predator they will tread water rapidly with their feet and flap wings to discourage them from advancing any closer.

Known Predators:

  • Mudge, G., T. Talbot. 1993. The breeding biology and causes of nest failure of Scottish Black-throated Divers Gavia arctica. IBIS, 135/2: 113-120.
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

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Global Abundance

10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

Arctic loons produce a variety of calls. A low call, which is very weak and sounds much like a human humming, is performed by both female and male. Moaning occurs as a low call with a strong sound, produced by both sexes as early as two months of age. Yodeling, a "kuik-kukuik-kukuik” sound, is the strongest vocalization produced by the species, which is performed only by the male. Even in unfavorable conditions this call can be heard up to distances surpassing 10 km. Both low calls and moaning vocalizations are recognized as contact calls. The difference being, a low call is a normal contact call, moaning is a high intensity contact call. Yodeling is a territorial call made by the male loon preparing to defend his territory. Territorial calls are often paired with threatening behaviors such as circling or bill dipping to warn of an imminent attack.

Like most birds, Arctic loons perceive their environments through visual, auditory, tactile and chemical stimuli.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic

  • Arlott, N. 2009. Birds of Europe, Russia, China, and Japan. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
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Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Arctic loons are thought to be relatively long-lived birds. However, there is little information available directly pertaining to their lifespan. The oldest recorded wild Arctic loon lived to be 28 years old.

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
28 (high) years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 28 years (wild)
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Reproduction

Presumably similar to G. PACIFICA.

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Arctic loons are monogamous, meaning they live their whole lives with only one mate. The couple stays together during their winter migration and on their wintering grounds. New couples use a number of synchronous movements including bill-dipping, splash diving and rushing under water. Mating occurs on the water banks and often occurs right after the birds have arrived in the breeding area. This species exhibits strong site fidelity and often uses the same nesting site for every breeding season. Gavia arctica will continue to use this site for a short time following mating.

Mating System: monogamous

Arctic loons occupying southern regions begin their breeding season in May, whereas the breeding season in northern regions is determined by the onset of spring. In the spring they migrate from their wintering grounds. Upon nest completion the female will lay 1 to 3 eggs. The eggs are normally olive-brown with dark brown spots. Incubation takes 27 to 29 days followed by a vital growth period of 9 to 10 weeks. When the young are about two months old, they gain the ability to fly or "fledge". They reach sexual maturity in 2 to 3 years.

Breeding interval: Arctic loons breed once a year

Breeding season: The breeding season varies geographically but occurs in spring

Range eggs per season: 2 to 3.

Range time to hatching: 27 to 29 days.

Average fledging age: 2 months.

Range time to independence: 2 to 3 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 2 to 3 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 2 to 3 years.

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)

The male loon is responsible for building the nest. Both parents take part in the incubation, but the females display a higher percentage of parental care. Incubation takes about 27 to 29 days followed by a vital growth period of 9 to 10 weeks, where both parents aid in rearing the offspring. The semiprecocial young spend the first day in the nest, but are able to swim at 2 to 4 days old. Both parents participate in feeding the young constantly throughout the first few weeks. Parents individually feed offspring one at a time, offering only one piece of food at a time, consisting usually of crustaceans. Newly hatched young often ride on their parents' backs, likely to avoid predators and conserve energy. At several weeks of age, the young start feeding themselves, but are still sometimes fed by their parents. When they are about two months old, they can fly and are considered fledgelings. They reach sexual maturity in 2 to 3 years.

Parental Investment: precocial ; male parental care ; female parental care ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female)

  • Petersen, M. 1979. Nesting Ecology of Arctic Loons. The Wilson Bulletin, 91/4: 608-617.
  • Sjolander, S. 1978. Reproductive Behavior of the Black-Throated Diver Gavia arctica. Ornis Scandinavica, 9/1: 51-65.
  • Sjolander, S., G. Agren. 1972. Reproductive Behavior of the Common Loon. The wilson Bulletin, 84/3: 296-308.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gavia arctica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Gavia arctica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CGATGACTATTCTCAACTAACCACAAAGATATCGGCACACTGTACCTTATCTTCGGGGCATGGGCCGGCATAGTCGGAACTGCCCTT---AGCCTACTCATCCGCGCAGAGCTCGGACAACCAGGAACCCTCCTAGGAGAC---GACCAAATCTATAACGTAATTGTTACTGCCCATGCCTTCGTAATAATCTTCTTCATGGTCATACCTATTATAATCGGGGGATTTGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCCCTTATA---ATCGGTGCTCCCGACATAGCATTCCCACGCATAAACAATATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTTCCCCCATCCTTCCTACTCCTACTAGCCTCCTCCACAGTAGAAGCGGGAGCAGGTACAGGCTGAACCGTATATCCCCCATTAGCTGGCAATCTCGCCCATGCTGGAGCCTCAGTAGACTTA---GCCATTTTCTCCCTCCACCTAGCAGGCGTATCCTCTATCTTAGGGGCAATTAACTTCATCACAACCGCCATTAACATAAAACCTCCAGCCCTCTCACAATATCAAACCCCCCTATTCGTATGATCAGTCCTCATTACAGCTGTCCTGCTCCTACTCTCACTCCCAGTCCTCGCTGCT---GGTATTACCATATTACTAACAGACCGAAACCTAAATACTACATTCTTCGACCCAGCCGGAGGAGGAGACCCGGTTCTATACCAACATTTATTCTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCAGAAGTATACATCCTGATTCTACCAGGCTTCGGAATTATCTCACATGTAGTAACATACTATGCAGGTAAGAAA---GAACCATTCGGCTACATAGGAATAGTATGAGCCATACTGTCCATTGGATTTCTAGGCTTCATCGTATGAGCCCACCACATGTTTACAGTCGGAATAGACGTAGACACCCGAGCATATTTCACCTCAGCTACTATAATCATCGCCATCCCAACAGGCATCAAAGTCTTTAGCTGACTG---GCCACACTGCACGGAGGG---ACCATCAAATGAGAACCCCCAATACTATGAGCCCTAGGCTTTATCTTCCTCTTCACTATTGGCGGTCTGACAGGAATCGTTTTAGCAAACTCCTCACTAGACATCGCCCTGCACGACACATACTACGTAGTTGCCCACTTCCACTACGTC---CTCTCTATAGGAGCTGTTTTTGCCATCCTAGCAGGATTCACCCACTGATTCCCCCTATTCACCGGATATACCCTACACCCTACATGAGCCAAAGCCCACTTCGGAGTCATATTCACAGGCGTAAATCTAACCTTCTTCCCACAGCACTTCCTAGGCCTAGCGGGCATGCCACGA---CGATACTCCGACTACCCAGATGCCTACACC---CTATGAAACACTATATCCTCCATCGGTTCACTAATTTCAATAACAGCCGTCATCATATTAATATTCATTATCTGAGAGGCCTTCGCATCAAAACGAAAAGTT---ATACAACCAGAACTAACTGCCACCAAT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1B - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Arctic loons are vulnerable to human disturbances within their breeding sites. Changes in the habitat, including alterations of water levels, acidification of water as well as oil and heavy metal pollution are constant threats for this species. Current populations tend to be fairly large but are progressively decline throughout the southern part of their range. According to the assessment of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), Arctic loons are categorized as a species of least concern. The European breeding population of Arctic loons is relatively small (less than 92,000 pairs), and underwent a large decline between 1970 and 1990. On the other hand, Arctic loon populations in Sweden and Finland were stable and increased between 1990 and 2000.

US Migratory Bird Act: protected

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Global Short Term Trend: Unknown

Global Long Term Trend: Unknown

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Population

Population
The global population is estimated to number c.280,000-1,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while the population in Russia has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
During the breeding season the species is threatened by the acidification of breeding waters, heavy metal pollution and water level fluctuations (del Hoyo et al. 1992) especially during the incubation period (Gotmark et al. 1989, Hake et al. 2005). It also suffers from lower reproductive success due to human disturbance (del Hoyo et al. 1992) (e.g. from tourists or wetland visitors) (Gotmark et al. 1989) and is indirectly affected by breeding habitat alteration (e.g. afforestation) (del Hoyo et al. 1992). During the winter the species is highly vulnerable to coastal oil spills, especially in rich fishing grounds where large congregation may occur, and is commonly caught and drowned as bycatch in fishing nets (del Hoyo et al. 1992). The species is also highly sensitive to disturbance from coastal wind farms (wind turbines) (Garthe and Huppop 2004) and is susceptible to avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus (Melville and Shortridge 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Arctic loons feed primarily on fish and may be considered competitors for fishermen.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Inuit, a member of the Eskimo peoples inhabiting northernmost North America from northern Alaska to eastern Canada, use Arctic loons' eggs for food. They sometimes hunt loons on the breeding ground for consumption as well.

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Wikipedia

Black-throated Loon

The black-throated loon (Gavia arctica) is a migratory aquatic bird found in the northern hemisphere. The species is known as an Arctic loon in North America and the black-throated diver in Eurasia. Its current name is a compromise proposed by the International Ornithological Committee.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

The black-throated loon was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th-century work, Systema Naturae.[3] The genus name Gavia comes from the Latin for "sea mew", as used by ancient Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder.[4]

Description[edit]

Breeding adults are 58 to 77 cm (23 to 30 in) in length with a 100 to 130 cm (39 to 51 in) wingspan, shaped like a smaller, sleeker version of the great northern diver.[5] Body mass is reportedly from 2–3.4 kg (4.4–7.5 lb).[6] They have a grey head, black throat, white underparts and chequered black-and-white mantle. Non-breeding plumage is drabber with the chin and foreneck white. Its bill is grey or whitish and dagger-shaped. In all plumages a white flank patch distinguishes this species from all other divers including the otherwise almost identical Pacific diver.

Distribution[edit]

It breeds in Eurasia and occasionally in western Alaska. It winters at sea, as well as on large lakes over a much wider range.

It is a vagrant to Pakistan[citation needed].

Behaviour[edit]

This species, like all divers, is a specialist fish-eater, catching its prey underwater. It flies with neck outstretched. It feeds on fish, insects, crustaceans and amphibians.

The calls include a yodelling high-pitched wail and harsh growls, similar but lower pitched than Pacific loon.

See the family Gaviidae for more details on general behaviour.

Miscellaneous[edit]

Breeding and non-breeding Arctic loons

The black-throated diver is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.

Instructions for constructing and deploying artificial floating islands to provide black-throated divers with nesting opportunities are given in Hancock (2000).

In 2007, RSPB Scotland and the Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) stated that it was surprised by an increase in the last 12 years in the breeding figures in the UK for the red-throated diver and the rarer black-throated diver of 16% and 34% respectively due to the anchoring of 58 man-made rafts in lochs. Both species decreased elsewhere in Europe.

The black-throated diver is the current school emblem of Achfary Primary School.

Dr Mark Eaton, an RSPB scientist, traced the drop in overall numbers to warming of the North Sea which reduced stocks of the fish on which they feed.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Gavia arctica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Gill, F., Wright, M. & Donsker, D. (2009). IOC World Bird Names (version 2.2). Available at http://www.worldbirdnames.org/ Accessed 3 September 2009
  3. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii). 
  4. ^ Johnsgard, Paul A. (1987). Diving Birds of North America. University of Nevada–Lincoln. ISBN 0-8032-2566-0. 
  5. ^ [1] (2011).
  6. ^ CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (1992), ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
  7. ^ BBC NEWS, Rise in divers mystifies experts

Identification[edit]

  • Appleby, R.H.; S. C. Madge and Killian Mullarney (1986). "Identification of divers in immature and winter plumages". British Birds 79 (8): 365–391. 
  • Birch, A.; C.T. Lee (1997). "Field identification of Arctic and Pacific Loons". Birding 29: 106–115. 
  • Birch, A.; C.T. Lee (1995). "Identification of the Pacific Diver - a potential vagrant to Europe". Birding World 8: 458–466. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: G. pacifica formerly was regarded as a subspecies of G. arctica (AOU 1985). Birds breeding in eastern Siberia and Alaska once regarded as a separate species, G. viridigularis (AOU 1998).

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