The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2006. website, Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource, 2006.12.10
  • BirdLife International 2012. Cygnus atratus
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from
  • Delacour, J. 1954. Waterfowl of the World. London: Country Life Limited.
  • Forshaw, J. 1998. Aniseriformes. Pp. 84 in Encyclopedia of Birds, Vol. 1, 2nd Edition. McMahons Point, N.S.W.: Weldon Owen.
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. ix + 259
  • Johnsgard, P. 1965. Handbook of Waterfowl Behavior. Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publishing Associates.
  • Kraaijeveld, K., R. Mulder. 2002. The Functions of the Triumph Ceremonies in the Black Swan. Behavior, 139(1): 45-54.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Sedgwick County Zoo. 2003. "Black Swan (Cygnus atratus)" (On-line). Accessed April 06, 2004 at
  • The Chaffee Zoo. Date Unknown. "Black Swan" (On-line). Accessed April 06, 2004 at
  • Wilmore, S. 1974. Swans of the World. New York, New York: Taplinger Publishing Co..
  • del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, J. Sargatal. 1992. Black Swan. Pp. 578 in Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1, 1st Edition. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.


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