The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2006. website, Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource, 2006.12.10
  • Adriaens, P. (2015). Cygnus atratus (Latham, 1790). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • BirdLife International 2012. Cygnus atratus
  • Delacour, J. 1954. Waterfowl of the World. London: Country Life Limited.
  • Forshaw, J. 1998. Aniseriformes. Pp. 84 in Encyclopedia of Birds, Vol. 1, 2nd Edition. McMahons Point, N.S.W.: Weldon Owen.
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. ix + 259
  • Johnsgard, P. 1965. Handbook of Waterfowl Behavior. Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publishing Associates.
  • Kraaijeveld, K., R. Mulder. 2002. The Functions of the Triumph Ceremonies in the Black Swan. Behavior, 139(1): 45-54.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Sedgwick County Zoo. 2003. "Black Swan (Cygnus atratus)" (On-line). Accessed April 06, 2004 at
  • The Chaffee Zoo. Date Unknown. "Black Swan" (On-line). Accessed April 06, 2004 at
  • Wilmore, S. 1974. Swans of the World. New York, New York: Taplinger Publishing Co..
  • del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, J. Sargatal. 1992. Black Swan. Pp. 578 in Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1, 1st Edition. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.


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