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Range DescriptionEmberiza jankowskii breeds in extreme north-eastern North Korea and in Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia and Jilin, China (BirdLife International 2001). In China, it disperses south and west outside the breeding season, when there are historic records from Liaoning, Hebei and Beijing. In Russia, it was previously locally common in southern Primorye, with a population estimated at several hundred pairs, but had disappeared from its former breeding sites by the early 1970s, and there have been no subsequent records. In the past, it was not uncommon within its small range in North Korea, but there is little recent information. In China, the breeding population at three sites in Jilin province was estimated at 330-430 pairs in 1994, and in the first half of the 20th century it was locally common in Heilongjiang; however, there are very few recent records and it appears to have disappeared or drastically declined at most of its known sites. It is believed to be extinct in eastern Jilin, and in 2008 breeding was known from a total of only four sites (Jiang Yun-Lei et al. 2008). At Huichin (south-western Jilin) 350 pairs were recorded in 1994 but none could be found in 2005 (Wang Ruiqing and Li Fei 2008). No birds have been recorded at Xianghai Nature Reserve since 2003, while at Baicheng the population declined from 100 individuals in 2001 to only two in 2008 (Wang Ruiqing and Li Fei 2008). The species's known breeding population is now restricted to Tumiji and Maanshan in Zhalaite Qi in Inner Mongolia, Dagang Forest Farm in Zhenlai County, western Jilin, and the Keerqin area, reportedly Xiergen and Xinjiamu in Keerqinyouyiqian Qi (Wang Haitao et al. 2010). At Dagang, the population crashed between 1999-2002 from c.55 pairs to c.15 pairs and remained relatively constant at around 15 pairs in 2002-2006 (Jiang Yun-Lei et al. 2008), falling to c.10 pairs in 2010 (Wang Haitao et al. 2010). At Maanshan, the population has declined from c.11 pairs in 2001 to around three pairs in 2008 (Wang Haitao et al. 2010). The only other currently known sites are Tumiji, with possibly fewer than 50 birds, and the Keerqin area, where two pairs were recorded in 2009 and up to seven birds were seen in 2010 (P. Holt in litt. 2010). A record of 43 individuals at Keerqin, resulting from a brief survey in 2008 (Wang Ruiqing and Li Fei 2008), is thought to refer to Meadow Buntings E. cioides (Hale 2010). Although it has recently been sighted at two new locations (J. Hornskov in litt. 2009) the total population is likely to number fewer than 500 pairs, even assuming that there are currently unknown populations remaining elsewhere, but may now be considerably fewer than 200 pairs (Wang Ruiqing and Li Fei 2008).