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Range DescriptionEmberiza cineracea breeds on the islands of Skyros (Hölzinger 1995), Lesbos and Chios, Greece (115-305 pairs [BirdLife International 2004]), and western Turkey (race cineracea), as well as in south-east Turkey and south-west Iran (fewer than 100 pairs in the Zagros mountains; race semenowi) (Byers et al. 1995; Cramp and Perrins 1994). Statements regarding potential breeding in northern Syria and Iraq are of uncertain validity (Albayrak et al. 2003). The winter distribution remains poorly known, but includes Eritrea and Yemen, and potentially also Ethiopia, north-east Sudan and south-west Saudi Arabia (where records may solely relate to individuals on migration) (Walther et al. 2004; Walther 2006). In addition, there are passage records along the species's two, well-separated migration routes: Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Palestinian Authority Territories and Egypt (predominantly race cineracea); and Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Oman (race semenowi). The Turkish breeding population - which at 2,500-7,500 pairs probably constitutes over 90% of the global population - was suspected to have declined by 0-19% during 1990-2000 (BirdLife International 2004).