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Range DescriptionPolioptila lactea occurs in the lowland Atlantic Forest (up to 500 m) of south-east Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná, south Mato Grosso do Sul, north Rio Grande do Sul), north-east Argentina (Misiones, Corrientes) and east Paraguay (Canindeyú south to Itapúa) (Ridgely and Tudor 1989). It is found mainly in the Paraná basin, where it is most common in south-east Paraguay (Lowen et al. 1996), and locally in Argentina (J. C. Chebez and J. Mazar Barnett in litt. 1999). However, it is now very rare across much of its historical range. There have been no records from São Paulo since 1905 (Willis and Oniki 1993) and, in south-east Brazil, it is only regularly found at a handful of sites (Tobias et al. 1993).