The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • Brown, L.H., E.K. Urban & K. Newman (1982). The Birds of Africa, Volume I. Academic Press, London.
  • Cooper, J. (1977). Moult of the black-footed penguin. International Zoo Yearbook, 18: 22-27.
  • Crawford, R., J. David, L. Shannon, J. Kemper, N. Klages, J. Roux, L. Underhill, V. Ward, A. Williams, A. Wolfaardt. 2001. African penguins as predators and prey-coping (or not) with change. African Journal of Marine Science, 23: 435-447.
  • Cunningham, G., V. Strauss, P. Ryan. 2008. African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) can detect dimethyl sulphide, a prey-related odour. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 221: 3123-3127.
  • Cunningham, G., V. Strauss, P. Ryan. 2008. African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) can detect dimethyl sulphide, a prey-related odour. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 221: 3123-3127.
  • Frost, P., W. Siegfried, A. Burger. (2009). Behavioural adaptations of the jackass penguin, Spheniscus demersus to a hot, arid environment. Journal of Zoology, 179: 165-187.
  • Gohlich, U. B. (2007). The oldest fossil record of the extant penguin genus Spheniscus-a new species from the Miocene of Peru. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 52(2), 285.
  • Ksepka, D. T., & Clarke, J. A. (2010). The basal penguin (Aves: Sphenisciformes) Perudyptes devriesi and a phylogenetic evaluation of the penguin fossil record. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 337(1), 1-77.
  • Livezey, B. C. (1989). Morphometric patterns in Recent and fossil penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes). Journal of Zoology, 219(2), 269-307.
  • Randall, R., B. Randall. 1990. Cetaceans as predators of jackass penguins Spheniscus demersus: deductions based on behaviour. Marine Ornithology, 18: 9-12.
  • Stefoff, R. (2005). Penguins. 99 White Planes Road Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.
  • Stefoff, R. (2005). Penguins. 99 White Planes Road Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.
  • Thumser, N., M. Ficken. (1998). A Comparison of the Vocal Repertoires of Captive Spheniscus Penguins. Marine Ornithology, 26: 41-48.
  • Wilson, R. P., & Wilson, M. P. (1990). Foraging ecology of breeding Spheniscus penguins. Penguin biology. Academic Press, San Diego, 181-206.
  • Wilson, R., G. La Cock, M. Wilson, F. Mollagee. 1985. Differential digestion of fish and squid in jackass penguins Spheniscus demersus. Ornis Scandinavica, 16: 77-79.
  • WoRMS (2014). Spheniscus. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=205911

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!