Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Distribution.

 

Eighty-two specimens (NB=6, NS=66, PE=12) were examined. The earliest records from each province are: NEW BRUNSWICK: Northumberland Co.: Tabusintac, 13 June 1939 , 26 July 1939 , W.J. Brown (2, CNC). NOVA SCOTIA: Colchester Co.: Truro, 4 March 1919 , collector not recorded (8, NSAC). PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND: Prince Co.: Central Bedeque, 29 July 1954 , F.M. Cannon (1, ACPE).

 

Notes.

 

Typhaea stercorea (Linnaeus) was reported from New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island by Bousquet (1991) . The species is widely distributed throughout the Maritime Provinces, including Cape Breton Island (Fig. 2). A majority of specimens were collected outdoors in native habitats. It is an adventive Palaearctic beetle found both outdoors and in association with various stored products. Typhaea stercorea has been found in corn fields (on decaying kernels of exposed ears), warehouses, stores, flour mills, mangers, railway boxcars, dwellings, and granaries in stored grain and seeds, tobacco, peanuts, cacao, corn, millet, wheat, apricots, and moldy grape skins, as well as in nests of swans and moorhens ( Campbell et al. 1989 ). In Nova Scotia it was reported in large numbers in dairy barns ( Campbell et al. 1989 ).

 

The dates of earliest detection are given above: New Brunswick (1939), Nova Scotia (1919), and Prince Edward Island (1954). Typhaea stercorea is widespread in Europe, having been recorded in every country and region in the continent ( Nikitsky 2010 ), and is also virtually cosmopolitan globally, being found in every region of the world except (doubtfully) South and Central America ( Nikitsky 2010 ).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Typhaea stercorea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Typhaea stercorea

Typhaea stercorea is a cosmopolitan species of beetle of the family Mycetophagidae, known by the common name hairy fungus beetle.

Contents

Description

Adult T. stercorea are 3 millimetres (0.12 in) long, oval, brown, flattened, and have hairy elytra with parallel lines of fine hairs. It takes 21 to 33 days for the species' eggs to hatch,[1] and the eggs are laid or loosely attached to grain. The larvae are able to move easily and the adults can run very fast and fly. The species are pests of grain.[2] This species may been confused with minute mold beetles. When the species does damage, it is not possible to tell right away what insect is responsible.[3] The species eats stored products such as moldy cereal, tobacco, peanuts, and hay. The species also eats fungi that grow on damp food. One of the things that the larvae eats is fungi.[4] This species has been found in grain storages dating all the way back to the Iron Age.[5]

Habitat

The species can commonly be found on ripening hay and grain crops before harvest in temperate and tropical areas.[2]

Disease vector

It was discovered in 1994 that this species can carry Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis. The species carried the bacterium into a Danish broiler house that infected 39,900 day-old chicks. The chicks were infected by eating the beetles.[6] A study of species of beetles in broiler houses, including this species, showed that the beetles that are in broiler houses are likely to carry salmonella. The research also showed that the species can carry Salmonella enterica and Campylobacter spp.[7]

References

  1. ^ Rees, David (2007). Insects of Stored Grain: A Pocket Reference. CSIRO Publishing. pp. 39. ISBN 978-0-643-09385-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=ylJB0c1wuPYC&pg=PT42&dq=Typhaea+stercorea&lr=&cd=26#v=onepage&q=Typhaea%20stercorea&f=false.
  2. ^ a b Rees, David; Rangsi, Vanna (2004). Insects of stored products. CSIRO Publishing. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-0-643-06903-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=8F2WzM7S_mIC&pg=PA84&dq=Typhaea+stercorea&cd=2#v=onepage&q=Typhaea%20stercorea&f=false.
  3. ^ Bailey, Peter (2007). Pests of Field Crops and Pastures: Identification and Control. CSIRO Publishing. pp. 53. ISBN 978-0-643-06758-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=N10sAEHunWEC&pg=PA53&dq=Typhaea+stercorea&lr=&cd=36#v=onepage&q=Typhaea%20stercorea&f=false.
  4. ^ "Hairy Fungus Beetle (Typhaea stercorea)". OzAnimals. http://www.ozanimals.com/Insect/Hairy-Fungus-Beetle/Typhaea/stercorea.html. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
  5. ^ Multiple authors (1995). Stored-grain ecosystems. CRC Press. pp. 126. ISBN 978-0-8247-8983-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=oSVP6ouYVn4C&pg=PA126&dq=Typhaea+stercorea&lr=&cd=31#v=onepage&q=Typhaea%20stercorea&f=false.
  6. ^ B. Hald, A. Olsen & M. Madsen (1998). "Typhaea stercorea (Coleoptera: Mycetophagidae), a carrier of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis in a Danish broiler house" (PDF). Journal of Economic Entomology 91 (3): 660–664. PMID 9650515. 
  7. ^ M. N. Skov, A. G. Spencer, B. Hald, L. Petersen, B. Nauerby, B. Carstensen & M. Madsen (2004). "The role of litter beetles as potential reservoir for Salmonella enterica and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between broiler flocks". Avian Diseases 48 (1): 9–18. doi:10.1637/5698. PMID 15077793. 
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