Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description of Artemia monica

Artemia monica, the variety commonly as Mono Lake brine shrimp, are found only in Mono Lake Mono Lake is an alkaline and hypersaline lake in California, United States that is critical nesting habitat for several bird species and is one of the most productive ecosystems in North America.  
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Distribution

endemic to a single state or province

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (100-250 square km (about 40-100 square miles)) Endemic and only inhabits one terminal lake (Mono Lake, Mono Co., California) with elevated concentrations of salt. This is North America's oldest lake (500,000 years) and the only California lake in which this species can live (alkalinity too low in all others), though the lake is fairly large and deep (Eriksen and Belk, 1999).

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Similar to Artemia franciscana but does not co-occur. Only in Mono Lake. Cyst similar to A. franciscana in size (mean 0.19 mm) but Artemia monica cysts sink when released, do not require a period of desiccation, do need 1-3 months of cold water incubation before hatching in March (Eriksen and Belk, 1999).

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: Endemic and only inhabits one terminal lake (Mono Lake, Mono Co., California) with elevated concentrations of salt. This is North America's oldest lake (500,000 years) with high TDS 76,000 ppm (1967) to 93,600 ppm (1988), pH 9.7, and extremely high alkalinity at 19,500 ppm (1967) to 36,700 ppm (1988) (Eriksen and Belk, 1999).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5

Comments: Endemic and only inhabits one terminal lake (Mono Lake, Mono Co., California) with elevated concentrations of salt. This is North America's oldest lake (500,000 years) and the only California lake in which this species can live (alkalinity too low in all others), though the lake is fairly large and deep (Eriksen and Belk, 1999).

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Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LR/cd
Lower Risk/conservation dependent

Red List Criteria

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1996
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s

History
  • 1994
    Indeterminate
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Indeterminate
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Indeterminate
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
  • 1986
    Indeterminate
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G1 - Critically Imperiled

Reasons: Endemic and only inhabits one terminal lake (Mono Lake, Mono Co., California) with elevated concentrations of salt. This is North America's oldest lake (500,000 years) and the only California lake in which this species can live (alkalinity too low in all others), though the lake is fairly large and deep (Eriksen and Belk, 1999).

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Highly vulnerable

Comments: Highly endemic and cannot live in any other lake (alkalinity too low) in California (Eriksen and Belk, 1999), although the lake is farily large and deep.

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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: Stable population over time despite changes in lake dynamics.

Global Long Term Trend: Increase of 10-25% to decline of 30%

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Threats

Degree of Threat: Low

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Management

Global Protection: None. No occurrences appropriately protected and managed

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Probably evolved from a population of Artemia franciscana in Mono Lake (Eriksen and Belk, 1999).

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