Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species has been reported from Brazil, specifically from Bahia (Encruzilhada), Espírito Santo (Linhares, Timbuí, Santa Leopoldina), Minas Gerais (Pandeiros, Ipatinga, Rio José Pedro, Santa Bárbara), and Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro) (Arnaud 2002, Edmonds and Zidek 2004, França et al. 2012). Based on the nine known localities given in França et al. (2012), placing the species in less than ten locations, the extent of occurrence of this species is approximately 244,000 km2. Using grid cells of 5 km (25 km2) and 10 km (100 km2) in size around these known localities, area of occupancy is estimated as between 200 km2 and 800 km2. However, it has be kept in mind that some of these locality records are thirty years old.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Previously thought to be a species restricted to the super-moist Atlantic forest of southeastern Brazil, records of this species taken between 1985 and 2010 suggest that this species follows the riparian areas of large rivers that are connected with Atlantic forest of southeastern Brazil (França et al. 2012).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Vaz-de-Mello, F., Larsen, T., Silva, F., Favila, M., Spector, S. & Gill, B.

Reviewer/s
Böhm, M. & Gerlach, J.

Contributor/s
Fitch, A., Ledger, S., Smith, E. & Monteiro, L.

Justification
Oxysternon pteroderum has been assessed as Near Threatened, based on a restricted area of occupancy (200-800 km2) in less than ten locations for this rarely collected species. In fact, only around 35 specimens have been collected over a period of more than 100 years, resulting in nine locality records. These give rise to no more than nine known locations for this species, and its Atlantic Forest habitat has been under great pressure from habitat destruction and fragmentation in the past. However, current legislation protects remaining fragments of Atlantic Forest, suggesting that there is no evidence for a continuing decline in area of occupancy, subpopulations, locations or extent and quality of habitat. As such, the species nearly qualifies for a threatened category, justifying its Near Threatened assessment. It is vital for the survival of the species and its Atlantic forest habitat that current legislation remains in place. If legislation were to change, the species would require reassessment, as a return of the threats which have caused the vast decline in Atlantic forest in the past would present a very real threat to the survival of the species. However, at present, such changes are highly unlikely, thus precluding a VU D2 assessment. Although the species' distribution overlaps with protected areas, further protection of its habitat is likely to provide better protection for this and other species of the Atlantic Forest.
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Population

Population
There is no population information available, but until now, fewer than 35 specimens have been collected over a period of more than 100 years (França et al. 2012).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is known only from the super-moist Atlantic forest of southeastern Brazil. In the past, this habitat was greatly affected by habitat conversion and became highly fragmented when large areas were converted to eucalyptus plantations and pastureland for cattle ranching (F. Vaz-de-Mello pers. comm. 2013). However, currently, there is no evidence of whether this fragmentation continues and thus whether there is a continuing decline in area of occupancy, subpopulations, locations or extent and quality of habitat (F. Vaz-de-Mello pers. comm. 2013). This is because of legislation protecting the remaining fragments of this habitat and prohibiting forest cutting.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

There are no known species-specific conservation measures in place for this species, however in places its distribution coincides with protected areas, probably providing small safeguards. Further survey and collection is required to establish if the species persists in any additional localities. It is also vital that current legislation protecting the remaining fragments of Atlantic forest habitat stays in place, as otherwise threats would be likely to return.


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