Overview

Comprehensive Description

The Sunda Flying Lemur (or Sunda Colugo) belongs to the mammalian order Dermoptera. It is now widely (if not universally) accepted that the Dermoptera, along with the Scandentia (tree shrews), are the closest living relatives of the Primates, although the precise relationships among these three groups remain a matter of some debate (Janečka et al. 2007; Arnason et al. 2008; Nie et al. 2008; Asher et al. 2009). These three groups together are sometimes referred to as the Archonta (or Euarchonta) (Asher et al. 2009; Asher and Helgen 2010).

Just two species of colugos are currently recognized, the Philippine Colugo (Cynocephalus volans), found only in the southern Philippines, and the Sunda Colugo (Galeopterus variegates). The Sunda Colugo is endemic to Indochina and Sundaland, an area of the Asian continental shelf that includes the Malay Peninsula and the large islands of Borneo, Sumatra, and Java, as well many smaller islands. Janečka et al. (2008) investigated genetic variation in this broadly distributed species. Based on results from both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic loci, in combination with morphological analyses, they argue that mainland, Javan, and Bornean colugo subspecies may be better recognized as distinct species rather than as subspecies within a single species. (Janečka et al. 2008)

Colugos have a large gliding membrane attached to the neck and sides of the body. This membrane, which extends along the limbs to the tips of the fingers, toes, and tail, is more extensive than in other gliding mammals, whose gliding surface is only stretched between the limbs, with fingers, toes, and tail left free. Colugos are completely arboreal, being nearly helpless on the ground, and are able to travel over 100 meters forward in a single glide, with relatively little loss in elevation. They are generally nocturnal and feed on leaves, buds, flowers, and fruit. (Nowak 1991)

Lim and Ng (2010) estimated the population density of Sunda Colugos in the protected forests of Singapore at around one animal per two hectares, yielding an estimate of roughly 1000 individuals across Singapore's 2000 hectares of protected forest. Lim and Ng note that although colugos have been known to science for two centuries, they have been the subject of remarkably few formal studies. The investigation by Lim and Ng of appropriate methods for estimating population size of these animals is intended in part to facilitate further studies of the biology of these animals.

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Distribution

Range Description

The species occurs in Indochina (including Viet Nam, Lao PDR and Cambodia), south through Thailand, eastern Myanmar and Malaysia (Peninsula, Sabah and Sarawak) to Indonesia (Sumatra, Kalimantan and western Java). It is known from several localities in northern and central Lao PDR (Ruggeri and Etterson 1998; Duckworth et al. 1999). The mapped population in the general vicinity of Kao Yai in central Thailand is unlikely present.
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Geographic Range

Sunda flying lemurs are found in Southeast Asia and are endemic to Indochina and Sundaland, an area which includes the Malay Peninsula and the surrounding islands.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

  • 2005. "America Zoo" (On-line). Accessed February 03, 2009 at http://www.americazoo.com/goto/index/mammals/52.htm.
  • Burnie, D., D. Wilson. 2001. Smithsonian Institution Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. New York, New York: DK Publishing, Inc.
  • Shapiro, L. 2010. "Galeopterus variegatus (Audebert, 1799)" (On-line). Encyclopedia of Life. Accessed January 18, 2011 at http://www.eol.org/pages/1040858.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Sunda flying lemurs have small heads, large and forward-facing eyes, wide brows, and small ears. They have blunt snouts, and there are no obvious whiskers on their faces. The fur of Sunda flying lemurs is dense and mottled. While the underside is pale, the dorsal fur can be white, gray, black, or red. Unlike Philippine flying lemurs, Sunda flying lemurs have bold patches of color that look similar to lichen on a tree, which aid in camouflage. While Sunda flying lemurs cannot fly, a membrane of skin called a patagium allows them to glide. This membrane is fully furred, extending along the limbs from the neck to the fingers, toes and tail. When gliding, the patagium can extend to about 70 cm with the help of an extensor muscle in the flank membrane. Sunda flying lemurs have four legs of similar size with webbed feet and curled claws. Their digits are flattened, and the soles of the feet can form sucking discs to allow a better grip while climbing. Sunda flying lemurs weigh 0.9 to 2 kg (2 to 4.5 lbs) and are 33 to 42 cm in length with 17.5 to 27 cm tails.

Sunda flying lemurs have 34 carnivore-like teeth. Flying lemurs of the family Cynocephalidae have unique comb-shaped bottom incisors, which can be used for straining or grooming. These incisors include up to up to 20 prongs per tooth. While most incisors of mammals are single rooted, the second incisors of Sunda flying lemurs are double rooted. The front of the top jaw is toothless as the upper incisors are positioned at the sides of the jaw. The canines of Sunda flying lemurs resemble pre-molars.

Range mass: 0.9 to 2 kg.

Range length: 50.5 to 69 cm.

Average wingspan: 70 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

  • Allaby, M. 1999. A Dictionary of Zoology. Oxford: New York Oxford University Press (UK).
  • Darwin, C., G. Beer. 1996. The Origin of Species. Oxford: New York Oxford University Press (UK).
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Type Information

Type for Galeopterus variegatus
Catalog Number: USNM 151886
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Female; Adult
Preparation: Skin; Skull; Skeleton
Collector(s): W. Abbott
Year Collected: 1907
Locality: Pulo [= Pulau] Laut, Sungei [= Sungai] Lima, Borneo, Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia, Asia
  • Type: Lyon, M. W. 1911 Apr 25. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 40: 125.
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Type for Galeopterus variegatus
Catalog Number: USNM 144375
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Female; Adult
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): W. Abbott
Year Collected: 1907
Locality: Rhio Archipelago [= Kepulauan Riau], Pulo Jombol [= Pulau Combol], Sumatra, Kepulauan Riau, Indonesia, Asia
  • Type: Lyon, M. W. 1909 Jun 01. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 36: 486.
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Type for Galeopterus variegatus
Catalog Number: USNM 151888
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Female; Adult
Preparation: Skin; Skull; Skeleton; Anatomical
Collector(s): W. Abbott
Year Collected: 1908
Locality: Tjantung, up river of that name [= Sungai Cantung] 8 mi from Klumpang Bay [= Teluk Klumpang], Borneo, Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia, Asia
  • Type: Lyon, M. W. 1911 Apr 25. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 40: 124.
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Type for Galeopterus variegatus
Catalog Number: USNM 145577
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Female; Adult
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): W. Abbott
Year Collected: 1907
Locality: Pulo [= Pulau] Panebangan, Borneo, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia, Asia
  • Type: Lyon, M. W. 1911 Apr 25. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 40: 126.
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Type for Galeopterus variegatus
Catalog Number: USNM 114375
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Female; Adult
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): W. Abbott
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Banjak Islands [= Kepulauan Banyak], Pulo Tuanku [= Pulau Tuangku], Sumatra, Aceh, Indonesia, Asia
  • Type: Miller, G. S. 1903 Nov 06. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 45: 53.
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Type for Galeopterus variegatus
Catalog Number: USNM 121750
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Female; Adult
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): W. Abbott
Year Collected: 1903
Locality: Batu Islands [= Kepulauan Batu], Tana Bala [= Pulau Tanahbala], Sumatra, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia, Asia
  • Type: Miller, G. S. 1903 Nov 06. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 45: 51.
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Type for Galeopterus variegatus
Catalog Number: USNM 104448
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Male; Adult
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): W. Abbott
Year Collected: 1899
Locality: Butang Islands [= Batong Group], Pulo [= Ko] Adang, Satun, Thailand, Asia
  • Type: Miller, G. S. 1903 Nov 06. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 45: 46.
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Type for Galeopterus variegatus
Catalog Number: USNM 104602
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Female; Adult
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): W. Abbott
Year Collected: 1900
Locality: North Natuna Islands [= Kepulauan Natuna Besar], Bunguran [= Pulau Natuna Besar], Kepulauan Riau, Indonesia, Asia
  • Type: Miller, G. S. 1903 Nov 06. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 45: 50.
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Type for Galeopterus variegatus
Catalog Number: USNM 104601
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Female; Adult
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): W. Abbott
Year Collected: 1900
Locality: South Natuna Islands [= Kepulauan Natuna Selatan], Sirhassen Island [= Pulau Serasan], Kepulauan Riau, Indonesia, Asia
  • Type: Miller, G. S. 1903 Nov 06. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 45: 49.
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Type for Galeopterus variegatus
Catalog Number: USNM 112428
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Female; Adult
Preparation: Skin; Skull
Collector(s): W. Abbott
Year Collected: 1901
Locality: Pulo Aor [= Pulau Aur], Johor, Malaysia, Asia
  • Type: Miller, G. S. 1903 Nov 06. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 45: 47.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is a forest-dependent species, but can be found in secondary habitats close to human populations (Boeadi pers. comm.). It is found in evergreen forest below 1,000 m asl (R. Steinmetz pers. comm.), mostly sleeping in coconut trees during the day, feeding on young fruits of surrounding trees (Boeadi pers. comm.). This species was reported from a mangrove forest in Bako National Park, Sarawak (Giman pers. comm.). It is found quite readily in plantations, perhaps even breeding there in Thailand and Viet Nam (R. Steinmetz pers. comm.).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Sunda flying lemurs are strictly arboreal, spending their entire lives in the treetops of tropical rainforests. They can also be found in highlands and can readily adapt to disturbed forests edges and plantations.

Habitat Regions: tropical

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

Other Habitat Features: agricultural

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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Sunda flying lemurs are strictly herbivorous. They feed on soft plant parts such as fruits, flowers, buds, young leaves, nectar, and sap. The unusually comb-shaped lower incisors are thought to be used to scrape up sap from trees or to strain fruits and flowers.

Plant Foods: leaves; fruit; nectar; flowers; sap or other plant fluids

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore , Frugivore )

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Associations

Ecosystem Roles

As Sunda flying lemurs consume fruit and flowers, they may aid in seed dispersal as well as flower pollination.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds; pollinates

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Predation

Humans are among the few known predators of Sunda flying lemurs. If threatened, these animals either freeze or climb higher into the trees. Bold patches of fur that look similar lichen provide camouflage against predators. Sunda flying lemurs also glide away to escape predators, gliding up to up to 100 m with minimal loss in altitude.

Known Predators:

  • Humans homo sapiens

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

As most Sunda flying lemurs are solitary, little is known about communication between individuals. They can be territorial of sleeping and foraging areas, though information regarding territorial behavior is limited.

Communication Channels: acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; acoustic

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Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Little information is available on the lifespan of Sunda flying lemurs, but the oldest known captive flying lemur of the family Cynocephalidae was 17.5 years old.

Range lifespan

Status: captivity:
17.5 (high) years.

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Reproduction

Little is known about the reproductive systems and courtships of Sunda flying lemurs.

Sunda flying lemurs can mate throughout the year. After a gestation period of about 60 days, female Sunda flying lemurs give birth to a single offspring. Rarely, twins can be born. The offspring is born underdeveloped and weighs around 35 g. Weaning occurs at six months of age, and adulthood is reached at about three years. The mother can mate again shortly after giving birth, and it is possible for a female to be pregnant while still nursing.

Breeding season: Mating of Sunda flying lemurs occurs throughout the year.

Range number of offspring: 1 to 2.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average gestation period: 60 days.

Average birth mass: 35 g.

Average weaning age: 6 months.

Average time to independence: 3 years.

Key Reproductive Features: year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); fertilization ; viviparous

Offspring of Sunda flying lemurs nurse from a single pair of mammae located near the mother's armpits. The mother can fold her patagium into a pouch to protect and warm her offspring. Young Sunda flying lemurs are dependent on the mother until they are weaned. Offspring cling to the underside of the mother, if not in the pouch, even when she is gliding from tree to tree.

Parental Investment: altricial ; female parental care ; pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

  • 2005. "America Zoo" (On-line). Accessed February 03, 2009 at http://www.americazoo.com/goto/index/mammals/52.htm.
  • Burnie, D., D. Wilson. 2001. Smithsonian Institution Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. New York, New York: DK Publishing, Inc.
  • Linzey, D. 2007. Dermoptera. Pp. 390-391 in McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Vol. 5, 10 Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Martin, R. 2004. Dermoptera (Colugos). Pp. 299-305 in E Hutchins, D Thoney, M McDade, eds. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol. 13, 2 Edition. Detroit: Gale.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Galeopterus variegatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Galeopterus variegatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Galeopterus variegates

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Galeopterus variegates

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Boeadi & Steinmetz, R.

Reviewer/s
Chiozza, F. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is probably declining due to habitat loss, possible competition with Callosciurus notatus, and traditional hunting in Java and perhaps elsewhere. More information is needed on population declines, but at present it is believed that the rate of the decline is probably not fast enough to trigger listing in any category other than Least Concern.

History
  • 1996
    Lower Risk/least concern
    (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
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Although Sunda flying lemurs are fairly adaptive to disturbed forests, their numbers have been decreasing due to habitat loss from logging and the conversion of native forests into farm land. Nonetheless, Sunda flying lemurs are considered at low risk of extinction by the IUCN Red List.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Population

Population
There have been population declines on Java, where it occurs only on the western part of the island (Boeadi pers. comm.). Since 2001, there has been an ongoing study of this species by M. Baba, Kitakyusyu Museum in Japan (Boeadi pers. comm.), and there was as a study done in Singapore by the Raffles Museum in 2003. This species is probably not common in Sarawak (Giman pers. comm.).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is threatened by hunting by local people on western Java for consumption, though there is not much meat, thus it is not hunted widely, only traditionally (Boeadi pers. comm.), with increased hunting pressure every four years, by the Baduy Tribe (Boeadi pers. comm.). Deforestation is a threat to this species, as it is dependent on lowland forest. In the northern part of the range, including Thailand and Viet Nam, habitat loss is the main threat to this species, not hunting (R. Steinmetz pers. comm.). Populations in plantations might be threatened by competition with the Plantain Squirrel Callosciurus notatus.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is protected by national legislation, and is found in many protected areas, including in Peninsular Malaysia (Han pers. comm.), and in a few protected areas on Java, such Halimun National Park (U. Sinaga pers. comm.) and Masigit-Kareumbi Hunting Park (Farida pers. comm.).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Because Sunda flying lemurs adapt well to disturbed and fragmented forests and plantations, they are considered as pests for fruit crops.

Negative Impacts: crop pest

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Sunda flying lemurs are occasionally hunted for their meat and skin. As the closest living relatives to primates, the genome of Sunda flying lemurs could prove evolutionarily enlightening.

Positive Impacts: food ; body parts are source of valuable material; research and education

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Wikipedia

Sunda flying lemur

The Sunda flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus), also known as the Malayan flying lemur or Malayan colugo, is a species of colugo (see below for notes on the common name "flying lemur"). Until recently, it was thought to be one of only two species of flying lemur, the other being the Philippine flying lemur which is found only in the Philippines. The Sunda flying lemur is found throughout Southeast Asia in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore.[3]

The Sunda flying lemur is not a lemur and does not fly. Instead, it glides as it leaps among trees. It is strictly arboreal, is active at night, and feeds on soft plant parts such as young leaves, shoots, flowers, and fruits. After a 60-day gestation period, a single offspring is carried on the mother's abdomen held by a large skin membrane.[4] It is a forest-dependent species.

The head-body length of Sunda flying lemur is about 34 to 38 cm (13 to 15 in). Its tail length is around 24 to 25 cm (9.4 to 9.8 in), and its weight is 0.9 to 1.3 kg (2.0 to 2.9 lb).

The Sunda flying lemur is protected by national legislation. In addition to deforestation and loss of habitat, local subsistence hunting poses a serious threat to this animal. Competition with the plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus) represents another challenge for this species. More information is needed on population declines, but at present the rate of the decline is believed to be probably not fast enough to trigger listing in any category other than Least Concern.[2]

Classification and evolution[edit]

Skull

The Sunda flying lemurs' two forms are not morphologically distinct from one another; the large form occurs on the mainland of the Sunda Shelf area and the mainland of Southeast Asia, while the dwarf form occurs in central Laos and some other adjacent islands.[5] The Laos specimen is smaller (about 20%) than the other known mainland population.[6] Despite the large and dwarf forms, four subspecies are known: G. v. variegatus (Java), G. v. temminckii (Sumatra), G. v. borneanus (Borneo), and G. v. peninsulae (Peninsular Malaysia and mainland of Southeast Asia)[5] incorporating on the genetic species concept due to geographic isolation and genetic divergence. Recent molecular and morphological data provide the evidence that the mainland, Javan, and Bornean Sunda flying lemur subspecies may be recognised as three separate species in the genus Galeopterus.[7]

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

The Sunda flying lemur is a skillful climber, but is helpless when on the ground.[8] Its gliding membrane connects from the neck, extending along the limbs to the tips of the fingers, toes and nails.[9] This kite-shaped skin is known as a patagium, which is expanded for gliding. The Sunda flying lemur can glide over a distance of 100 m with a loss of less than 10 m in elevation.[9] It can maneuver and navigate while gliding, but strong rain and wind can affect its ability to glide.[10] Gliding usually occurs in open areas or high in the canopy, especially in dense tropical rainforest. The Sunda flying lemur needs a certain distance to glide and to land to avoid injury.[10] The highest landing forces are experienced after short glides; longer glides lead to softer landings, due to the colugo's ability to brake its glide aerodynamically.[11] The ability to glide increases a colugo's access to scattered food resources in the rainforest, without increasing exposure to terrestrial or arboreal predators.[11]

In general, the diet of the Sunda flying lemur consists mainly of leaves. It usually consumes leaves with less potassium and nitrogen-containing compounds, but with higher tannin.[12] It also feeds on buds,[13] shoots,[14] coconut flowers, durian flowers,[15] fruits,[16] and sap[17] from selected tree species. It also feeds on insects in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo.[18] The selected food sources depend on the localities, habitat, vegetation types, and availability.[19]

The Sunda flying lemur mainly forages in tree canopies. It may forage on several different tree species in a single night,[20][21] or on a single species. It can also be seen licking tree bark of selected tree species to obtain water, nutrients, salts, and minerals.[17]

Distributions and habitats[edit]

The Sunda flying lemur is widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia, ranging from the Sunda Shelf mainland to other islands – Northern Laos,[6] Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia (Peninsular, Sabah and Sarawak), Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatera, Bali, Java),[22][1] and many adjacent islands.[14] Conversely, the Philippine flying lemur (C. volans) is confined to the southern parts of the Philippines only.[1]

The Sunda flying lemur is adapted to many different vegetation types, including gardens, primary and secondary forest,[23] rubber and coconut plantations,[24] fruit orchards (dusun),[15] mangrove swamps,[13] lowlands and upland forests,[25][9] tree plantations,[14] lowland dipterocarp forests, and mountainous areas.[16] However, not all of the mentioned habitats can sustain large colugo populations.

References[edit]

Literature cited[edit]

  • Agoramoorthy, G., Sha, C.M., and Hsu, M.J. (2006). Population, diet and conservation of Malayan flying lemurs in altered and fragmented habitats in Singapore. Biodiversity and Conservation. 15: 2177-2185.
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  • Byrnes, G., Norman T.-L. Lim., and Andrew, J. Spence. (2008). Take-off and landing kinetics of a free-ranging gliding mammal, the Malayan Colugo (Galeopterus variegatus). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 275(1638): 1007-1013.
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  • Janecka, J.E., Helgen, K.M., Lim, N.T.L., Baba, M., Izawa, M., Boeadi, and Murphy, W.J. (2008). Evidence for multiple species of Sunda Colugo. Current Biology. 18: 21.
  • Ketol B., Abdullah M.T. and Tedong, S. (2006). Short notes: Distribution records of the rare flying lemur in Kota Samarahan and Kuching Area, Sarawak. Sarawak Museum Journal. 83: 237-241.
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  • Lim, B.L. (1967). Observations on the food habits and ecological habitat of the Malaysian flying lemur. International Zoo Yearbook. Scotland, Aberdeen University Press. 7: 196-197.
  • Lim, N. (2007). Malayan colugo: The flying lemur of South-East Asia. Draco Publishing and Distribution Pte Ltd, Singapore.
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  • Yasuma, S. and Andau, M. (2000). Mammals of Sabah Part-2, habitat and ecology. Tian Sing Printing Co. Sdn.Bhd, Kota Kinabalu.
  • Byrnes, G., Thomas Libby, Norman T.-L. Lim, and Andrew, J. Spence. (2011). Gliding saves time but not energy in Malayan Colugos. Journal of Experimental Biology 214:2690-2696.

Additional references[edit]

  • Anon, (2008). Flying lemurs mating, Bako National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wavNc4nuVyk. Accessed date October 7, 2008.
  • Byrnes, G., Thomas Libby, Norman T.-L. Lim, and Andrew, J. Spence. (2011). Gliding saves time but not energy in Malayan Colugos. Journal of Experimental Biology 214:2690-2696.
  • Chapman, H.C. (1902). Observations upon Galeopithecus volans. Proceedings of the Academy of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia. 54: 241-254.
  • Chasen, F.N. and Kloss, C.B. (1929). Notes on flying lemurs (Galeopterus). Bulletin of the Raffles Museum. 2: 12-22.
  • Dzulhelmi, M.N. and Abdullah, M.T. (2009a). An ethogram construction for the Malayan flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus) in Bako National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation. 5(1): 31-42.
  • Dzulhelmi, M.N. and Abdullah, M.T. (2009b). The foraging ecology of the Sunda Colugo (Galeopterus variegatus) in Bako National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal. 61(4): 285-294.
  • Dzulhelmi, M.N. and Abdullah, M.T. (2010). Distribution of the Sunda Colugo (Galeopterus variegatus) in Malaysia (Peninsular, Sabah and Sarawak). Journal of Tropical Life Sciences Research. 21(2): 69-83.
  • Dzulhelmi, M.N., Marzuki, H. and Abdullah, M.T. (2010). Observation on the roosting selection of the Sunda Colugo (Galeopterus variegatus) in Bako National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. Proceedings of Conference on Natural Resources in the Tropics3: Harnessing Tropical Natural Resources Through Innovations and Technologies. pp. 433–439.
  • Dzulhelmi, M.N. (2011). Behavioural Ecology of the Sunda Colugo Galeopterus variegatus (Mammalia: Dermoptera) in Bako National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia . MSc. Dissertations. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan.
  • Dzulhelmi, N. (2013). Natural History of the Colugo. UKM Press: Bangi.
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